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Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas

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1 Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas
Objectives: Describe early attempts by the U.S. to expand in the Pacific. Identify reasons that the U.S. declared war on Spain. Explain why and how the U.S. built the Panama canal. 1

2 Opening Japan to Trade For 250 years, Japan blocked outside trade 1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry sails into Tokyo Bay and presented a letter from POTUS Japan did not have the military to combat Perry’s warships Japan agreed to open trade with U.S. – soon all European nations settled treaties with Japan The Japanese transformed their society within 50 years into a modern, Western nation

3 Seward’s Icebox Secretary of State William H. Seward argued that the nation's strategic interests favored the treaty. Russia was open to the sale of the territory because it needed the money to fund its war with the British. The negotiations concluded at 4 o'clock in the morning of March 30, 1867 with the purchase price set at $7,200,000 (about 1.9¢ per acre).

4 Reaction to Purchase of Alaska
Americans saw the purchase as a “folly” Discovery of gold led to many settlers Once there, they discovered the many natural resources of Alaska Timber Oil Furs Minerals

5 The Expansionist Mood Isolationism – avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries Imperialism – building empires by imposing political and economic control over people around the world. Prior to the 1850’s the United States had been strictly isolationist, but feared that it would be militarily vulnerable if it allowed European nations to continue to colonize the Western Hemisphere.

6 The Turner Thesis Basically this theory states that the only reason the U.S. started to build the empire was because it had “Manifested it’s Destiny”. Other theories for imperialism in the U.S. included a sense of moral obligation to “civilize” the savages of the under developed world and the race for economic influence abroad.

7 Reasons for an American Empire
Economic – U.S. produced more than it could buy; new colonies could be markets for American goods to new peoples Military – Europe was carving up Asia and Africa; U.S. shut out of military bases Alfred Thayer Mahan – Naval captain and author who argued that the U.S. needed to expand its navy to become a world power Cultural – spread of American and Christian values (“The White Man’s Burden”)

8 The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling
Take up the White man's burden – Send forth the best ye breed – Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild – Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half devil and half child

9 Samoa Important re-fueling station between U.S. and Australia
Britain and Germany also wanted the islands All three nations send warships to area, but typhoon struck disabling most of the fleets 1899 – U.S. and Germany divide Samoan islands Samoa becomes U.S. protectorate

10 Annexing Hawaii In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani announced plans to establish a new constitution that would restore much of the power back to the monarchy and reduce the influence of outside business owners. On January 14, 1893, a group of American and Europeans formed a Committee of Safety in opposition to the Queen, and seized control of government. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety expressing concern about possible violence directed against American citizens, summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines to come ashore to enforce neutrality. President Grover Cleveland established an exploratory commission to research the legality of backing a nongovernmental entity with federal troops. They concluded that the overthrow of Liliuokalani was illegal. The U.S. Government first demanded that Queen Liliuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused.

11 Annexing Hawaii When William McKinley became president, this issue resurfaced. In June of 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii. On July 7, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21, the Senate agreed to the annexing Hawaii as a U.S. territory. Though several attempts were made to achieve statehood, Hawaii remained a territory for 60 years. Plantation owners found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor. Finally, in March 1959, both houses of Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law.

12 An American Empire? Ultimately Spain freed Cuba and granted Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Wake Island to the United States. In return, the United States paid Spain $20 million. In 1902 the United States forced the Cubans to adopt the Platt Amendment Basically stated that the U.S. could have a Naval base in Cuba and limited its the trade and barrowing abilities. The Foraker Act of 1900 set up a limited self-rule system in Puerto Rico. The U.S. would still oversee much of its affairs, but they could make “state level” decisions independently. Because fighting never really stopped in the Philippines, the United States did not make any such concessions with them. The islands remained heavily occupied by American troops until 1946.

13 Carving Up China China lost Opium War to British
European powers take advantage of China’s weakness by dividing it into spheres of influence Regions in China could only trade with one country Extraterritorial rights within each sphere

14 Open Door Policy U.S. excluded from Chinese trade
Secretary of State John Hay issued message to China in other powers in 1899 Called on them to keep an “open door” in China Guarentee the rights of all nations to trade Though many nations agreed in principal, Hay announced the Policy as “done deal” John Hay

15 Boxer Rebellion Boxers were anti-foreigner secret society in China (Righteous and Harmonious Fists) In 1900, Boxers began revolt to expel all foreigners in China Attacked and killed Chinese Christians and westerners Burned Christian churches and homes of foreigners Took diplomats hostage in Beijing U.S. and other powers send 18,000 troops Freed diplomats and crushed rebellion Looted capital and killed thousands of Chinese Forced China to pay reparations

16 Revolt in Cuba Cuba had been Spanish colony since days of Columbus
Cuba revolted several times, unsuccessfully 1895 – Cubans revolt again Spanish commader Valeriano Weyler begins policy of reconcentration Cubans were placed in concentration camps Many died of starvation and disease U.S. press revealed harsh conditions to public U.S. Cubans led by Jose Marti Urged United States to get involved in conflict

17 Revolt in Panama In 1903, French canal builders agreed to sell their stake in the bankrupt Panama venture to the United States for $40 million. Colombia, because of its sovereignty over Panama, expected part of the payment, but felt the price was too low. Unwilling to have the sale jeopardized and recognizing Panama’s desire for independence, the United States quietly encouraged Panama to rebel. The ensuing three-day-long revolution, under the watchful eye of two U.S. gunboats, created the Republic of Panama. A few days later, the United States and Panama signed a treaty to build the canal.


19 Fighting Disease As a result of the large number of deaths in the Spanish-American war that were due to Malaria, the American government sponsored the large scale spreading of pesticides around the canal zone. The process used most often was developed by William Gorgas, an American tropical disease expert. By spraying a thin film of oil on the water’s surface, they smothered any mosquito larvae that might be living there.

20 The Gatun Locks North Gatun Lake Limon Bay

21 The Pedro Miguel Lock North Gatun Lake Miraflores Lake


23 Roosevelt Corollary On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe proclaimed that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. (Monroe Doctrine) In December 1904 Theodore Roosevelt amended this statement by asserting the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of other nations within this hemisphere. This would prevent wars close to the United States and discourage countries (especially the Soviet Union) from attempting to colonize a country which could not pay back its debts.

24 Dollar Diplomacy After William Howard Taft took over the presidency, he continued to work with other countries in North America to expand relations The term dollar diplomacy was coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin America went from "warlike and political" to "peaceful and economic". The term is also used historically by Latin Americans to show their disapproval of the role that the U.S. government and U.S. corporations have played in using economic, diplomatic and military power to open up foreign markets. It basically means that anything that brings positive economic change to both the U.S. and other countries of the world is acceptable.

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