Presentation on theme: "Modern Turkey. Geography Turkey is located in two continents: Asia and Europe. – The Asian part of Turkey is known as Anatolia or Asia Minor. – The smaller."— Presentation transcript:
Turkey controls the important sea route between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. This sea route contains two straits: the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. Though Turkey’s capital is Ankara, its largest city, with a population of 15 million, is Istanbul. Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople during Roman times, straddles the Bosporus and is consequently located in Asia and Europe.
People With a population of 79 million, Turkey is the most populated country in the Middle East. Though Turks are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, they are not Arabs. Ethnically most of the people are Turks who speak Turkish. The largest ethnic minority in Turkey are the Kurds, who also live in Iraq, Syria, and Iran.
Ancient Turkey Turkey has a long and rich history. Over the years, Anatolia has been home to many civilizations including the Hittites, Persians, Greeks, Assyrians, Romans, Byzantines, and Seljuk Turks. Turkey was home to the Ottoman Empire, the last Islamic empire of the Middle East, which lasted for 600 years. – At its height in the 1500s, it was the strongest state in the world and controlled the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe. – The Ottoman Empire experienced a long period of decline and was dismantled after siding with Germany and Austria in World War I.
Checkpoint What two continents does Turkey belong in? – Europe and Asia What two straits does Turkey control? – Bosporus and Dardanelles What is the capital of Turkey? – Ankara What is the most populated city in Turkey? – Istanbul
Young Turks In the late 1800s, a group of young army officers formed a revolutionary group known as the Young Turks. – They placed a new sultan on the throne in 1908 and pursued a policy of Turkish nationalism. – They persecuted non-Muslims and mistreated Arabs. – During World War I, the Young Turks were responsible for the genocide of over 1 million Armenian Christians who had ties with Russia, one of Turkey’s historic enemies.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was reduced to a small territory in Asia Minor. A brilliant Turkish general, Mustafa Kemal, drove the Greeks and other Europeans out of Turkey, overthrew the sultan, and made Turkey a republic. Born with the name Mustafa, he was given the nickname Kemal, which means “perfection,” by one of his teachers. He pursued a military career and was the hero of the Battle of the Dardanelles during World War I. After becoming the president of the Republic of Turkey, he was given the last name Atatürk, which means “father of the Turks.” Atatürk set out to make Turkey a modern secular state. He used socialist policies to build industries, ended Islamic law, gave rights to women, and made many western reforms such as adopting a western alphabet and encouraging western clothing.
Modern Turkey Throughout its modern history, the Turkish military has played a major role. – It was seen as the guardian of secularism and has taken over the government a number of times. – However, the status of the military is changing. The ruling party, the A.K.P. (Justice and Development Party), is led by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan. It has Islamic roots and is gaining the upper hand over the military.
Modern Turkey During the Cold War, Turkey was a reliable ally of the United States – The only non-western member of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. – Today, Turkey is becoming an important independent power. – Its relationship with the U.S. has become strained and it is at odds with Israel, with whom it was once closely aligned.
Modern Turkey For a number of years, Turkey has been pursuing membership in the European Union. – In the past, it seemed unlikely that they would ever be invited to join – Now it seems that the EU might need Turkey more than Turkey needs the EU. Since the 1980s, Turkey has made capitalist reforms. – Manufacturing has grown, inflation has decreased, and the economy is booming.
Modern Turkey Turkey has a number of ongoing problems. – It faces terrorist attacks and skirmishes with the Kurds in eastern Turkey – The island of Cyprus remains divided between Turks and Greeks, – It refuses to acknowledge the Armenian genocide and its border with Armenia remains closed.
Modern Turkey Turkey is currently taking a leading role in the Middle East. – After trying to negotiate an end to the unrest in Libya, it condemned Muammar Gaddafi. – It has taken a similar stand toward the unrest in Syria and has called on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to step down.
Checkpoint Who were the Young Turks? – A revolutionary group that promoted Turkish nationalism. Were known for persecution/genocide. What was Ataturk’s main goal for Turkey? – Create a modern, secular country What group is Turkey currently trying to join? – The European Union