Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Iraq. Who was fighting in Iraq during WWI? Allied Powers British forces comprised of: British, Indian, and Australian troops Central."— Presentation transcript:
A Brief History of Iraq
Who was fighting in Iraq during WWI? Allied Powers British forces comprised of: British, Indian, and Australian troops Central Powers The Ottoman Empire: Turks (on the side of the central powers)
Specific battles, revolts, or other events that took place during WWI: The Mesopotamia Campaign 1914 – WWI in the region later known as Iraq – The Fao Landing (Al Faw) November, 1914 British offensive begins small port in modern Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf Battle of Shaiba – April – Push toward Bagdad – British Success The Siege of Kut/ The Battle of Kut – Dec – April – British attempt at push toward Bagdad – British surrender (humiliating) Capture Bagdad 1917 Armistice of Mudros signed 1918 – March 1917 – Proclamation of Bagdad – General Maude “our armies do not come into your cities and lands and conquers or enemies, but as liberators”
What peace agreement(s) and treaty (ies) were relevant to Iraq? Armistice of Mudros - October 20, 1918 – Ended the campaign in the region, and the Ottoman Empire 1919 Paris Peace Conference, Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant – Iraq is formally made, a Class A mandate entrusted to Britain (completed April 25, 1920) Cairo Conference of 1921 – In effort to reduce expenses and deal with uprisings of various areas of the population, the British establish parameters for Iraqi political life – Select Faysal (an Arab, ex King of Syria) as Iraq’s 1 st King – Iraqi Army is founded Organic Law of 1925 – Establishes government structure: constitutional monarchy, parliamentary government and bicameral legislature – State Religion: Islam 1925 Agreement (Britain & Iraq) Iraq Petroleum Company – 75 year concession, royalty payments/ton of oil – Excluded Iraq from having any ownership British Motivation? Save money Appear supportive of Iraq independence Gain control of oil resources
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930) – Iraq to gain full independence within two years – Gave the British almost unlimited rights to base military forces in Iraq The British could: – maintain air bases near Basra and Habbaniya “in times of peace” – have the right of transit for military forces and supplies “at all times” – use all railways, rivers, ports, and airways for the passage of armed forces “during times of war” – control the development of the Iraqi armed forces: » All Iraqi forces trained abroad must be trained in Britain » All foreign military instructors must be British » All foreign military supplies be supplied by Britain 1932, Iraq receives formal independence and was admitted into the League of Nations.
What happened after the war? British Influence and control Instability – Three regions become the state of Iraq – Ethnically, culturally and religiously diverse – Power shift/lacking Iraqi Revolt, June 1920 (several months) – Armed revolt against the British – symbol of states rejection of foreign rule – Tribes of the Euphrates (Shia, Sunni, Kurdish) “Guardians of Independence” – Unsuccessful change in Iraq power/government Faysal and the “Non-Puppet Government” Efforts to unite peoples in the boundaries of Iraq Faysal dies of heart-attack in 1933
When did the country actually achieve independence? 1932, Britain granted independence – Establish: Kingdom of Iraq Series of unsuccessful coup d’etats followed throughout the next 26 years 1958, coup d'état (July Revolution) – Overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy – Established: Republic of Iraq
What was happening to Iraq’s neighboring countries?