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A Brief History of Iraq. Who was fighting in Iraq during WWI? Allied Powers British forces comprised of: British, Indian, and Australian troops Central.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Iraq. Who was fighting in Iraq during WWI? Allied Powers British forces comprised of: British, Indian, and Australian troops Central."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of Iraq

2 Who was fighting in Iraq during WWI? Allied Powers British forces comprised of: British, Indian, and Australian troops Central Powers The Ottoman Empire: Turks (on the side of the central powers)

3 Specific battles, revolts, or other events that took place during WWI: The Mesopotamia Campaign 1914 – WWI in the region later known as Iraq – The Fao Landing (Al Faw) November, 1914 British offensive begins small port in modern Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf Battle of Shaiba – April – Push toward Bagdad – British Success The Siege of Kut/ The Battle of Kut – Dec – April – British attempt at push toward Bagdad – British surrender (humiliating) Capture Bagdad 1917  Armistice of Mudros signed 1918 – March 1917 – Proclamation of Bagdad – General Maude “our armies do not come into your cities and lands and conquers or enemies, but as liberators”

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5 What peace agreement(s) and treaty (ies) were relevant to Iraq? Armistice of Mudros - October 20, 1918 – Ended the campaign in the region, and the Ottoman Empire 1919 Paris Peace Conference, Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant – Iraq is formally made, a Class A mandate entrusted to Britain (completed April 25, 1920) Cairo Conference of 1921 – In effort to reduce expenses and deal with uprisings of various areas of the population, the British establish parameters for Iraqi political life – Select Faysal (an Arab, ex King of Syria) as Iraq’s 1 st King – Iraqi Army is founded Organic Law of 1925 – Establishes government structure: constitutional monarchy, parliamentary government and bicameral legislature – State Religion: Islam 1925 Agreement (Britain & Iraq)  Iraq Petroleum Company – 75 year concession, royalty payments/ton of oil – Excluded Iraq from having any ownership British Motivation? Save money Appear supportive of Iraq independence Gain control of oil resources

6 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930) – Iraq to gain full independence within two years – Gave the British almost unlimited rights to base military forces in Iraq The British could: – maintain air bases near Basra and Habbaniya “in times of peace” – have the right of transit for military forces and supplies “at all times” – use all railways, rivers, ports, and airways for the passage of armed forces “during times of war” – control the development of the Iraqi armed forces: » All Iraqi forces trained abroad must be trained in Britain » All foreign military instructors must be British » All foreign military supplies be supplied by Britain 1932, Iraq receives formal independence and was admitted into the League of Nations.

7 What happened after the war? British Influence and control Instability – Three regions become the state of Iraq – Ethnically, culturally and religiously diverse – Power shift/lacking Iraqi Revolt, June 1920 (several months) – Armed revolt against the British – symbol of states rejection of foreign rule – Tribes of the Euphrates (Shia, Sunni, Kurdish) “Guardians of Independence” – Unsuccessful  change in Iraq power/government Faysal and the “Non-Puppet Government” Efforts to unite peoples in the boundaries of Iraq Faysal dies of heart-attack in 1933

8 When did the country actually achieve independence? 1932, Britain granted independence – Establish: Kingdom of Iraq Series of unsuccessful coup d’etats followed throughout the next 26 years 1958, coup d'état (July Revolution) – Overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy – Established: Republic of Iraq

9 What was happening to Iraq’s neighboring countries?


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