Presentation on theme: "Filibusters and Unrest in Texas SPAIN’S OWNERSHIP OF TEXAS IS CHALLENGED! By 1800, Spain’s control over Texas was weak. There were only 3 major Spanish."— Presentation transcript:
Filibusters and Unrest in Texas
SPAIN’S OWNERSHIP OF TEXAS IS CHALLENGED! By 1800, Spain’s control over Texas was weak. There were only 3 major Spanish towns in Texas…Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and La Bahia. Plains Indians controled a majority of Texas.
US claims to Texas In 1803, France sold the Louisiana territory to the United States. Some people in the United States claimed that the Louisiana Territory included parts of Texas. Spain fought this claim, but the matter stayed unsettled for years.
Rebellion in Mexico In 1810, a revolt shook Mexico. The rebels wanted freedom from Spain. The struggle lasted more than ten years. These troubles attracted fortune seekers from the US to Texas.
Rebellion in Mexico Questions about who owned parts of Texas created a very tempting situation. The era of the filibuster had begun.
Philip Nolan filibuster In the early 1800s, Philip Nolan, perhaps the most famous filibuster, came to Texas to catch and sell wild mustangs. Many others followed suit. filibusters The Spanish were suspicious of many people, and they thought that all filibusters were trying to make Texas part of the U.S.
In the late 1800s, Philip Nolan came back to Texas and the Spanish were waiting. The attacked Nolan’s group near present day Waco and killed him.
Adams –Onis Treaty In 1819 the United States dropped all claims to Texas in the Adams-Onis Treaty. This treaty set the border between the US and Spanish Texas along the Sabine River. As part of the treaty, the US agreed that Spain owned Texas. In return, Spain gave Florida to the United States. The treaty angered some Americans. They did not think the US had the right to give Texas away.
Adams –Onis Treaty
One such angry man was Dr. James Long. He organized a trip into Texas. In 1819 he pushed into Texas. His wife, Jane Long, came with him.
Long’s army marched into Texas, took Nacogdoches, and declared Texas free from Spain. In 1821 led a group of 52 men in an attack on La Bahia. Long captured the presidio, but Spanish forces surrounded him. Long was put in jail and later shot.
Jane Long Jane Long, James’s wife, learned of his death while living on Point Bolivar near Galveston. She was left alone with 2 children a and servant. There she gave birth to a third child—possibly the first US citizen born in Texas. Mrs. Long endured severe weather, scarce food, and the threat of attack from Native Americans and Spanish soldiers. At one point she used a small cannon to frighten away some Karankawa Indians.
Later, Jane traveled to Mexico to investigate her husband’s death. Jane Long’s Jane Long’s bravery and independent spirit has earned her the nickname “Mother of Texas”. She eventually returned to Texas where she bought land and became a successful business woman.
Mexicans living in New Spain had been pushing for independence. Father Miguel Hidalgo from the town of Dolores Father Miguel Hidalgo from the town of Dolores called for Mexico’s independence from Spain.
On September 16, 1810, he issued his “Grito de Dolores” or “Cry of Dolores” Father Miguel Hidalgo Father Miguel Hidalgo called for Mexico’s independence from Spain.
Father Hidalgo Father Hidalgo wanted all people to be treated equally and put an end to the power of the “peninsulares” (upper class). peninsulares
Spaniards born in Europe—(peninsulares) Highest Rank Spaniards born in Americas (criollos) Second Highest Rank Mixed Spanish and Native American (mestizos) Low Rank Indians (little chance of leaving poverty) Lowest Rank
Spaniards born in Europe (peninsulares) Spaniards born in Americas (criollos) Mixed Spanish and Indian (mestizo) Indians Draw chart in journal.
New Spain's lower classes rose in great numbers to join Hidalgo’s revolt. Many criollos saw this as a lower class revolt. Criollos refused to support the revolt and they defeated Hidalgo’s forces. The Spaniards shot and killed him when one of his officers betrayed him.
Gutierrez-Magee Expedition One of Hidalgo’s supporters, Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, and a former U.S. soldier, Augustus Magee, decided to invade Texas and free it from Spanish rule. Their effort became known as the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition. They raised an army of 800 and successfully defeated the Spanish over a period of a few months.
Eventually the larger Spanish army defeated the Republican army and restored control over Texas. The expedition members established an independent state, but could not agree on how to run the government.
Mexico Works for Independence The revolts of Hidalgo, Magee, Gutierrez, and others soon faded, but the desire for change remained strong. Another priest, Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon, issued a declaration of independence. Morelos won control of large areas of southern New Spain. In 1815, forces loyal to the government captured and killed Morelos.
Mexico Works for Independence Agustin de Iturbide was the leader of a conservative force that fought against all independence revolts. Now he decided to work with the rebels to gain power. In 1821 he met with rebel leader Vicente Guerrero and agreed on the Plan of Iguala. The plan stated that Mexico would become an independent nation. The peninsulares and criollos would be equal. Also the Catholic Church would keep its power. Iturbide became the first leader of Mexico.
Mexican Independence With the Plan of Iguala, Spain had lost control of New Spain. On August 24, 1821, the nation of Mexico was born. However, the government could not agree on how to run the country. Many people were still poor and Mexico still worried about the United States trying to take land from them. The number of Mexicans living in Texas had dropped during the fight for freedom.
Mexican Independence With the Plan of Iguala, Spain had lost control of New Spain. On August 24, 1821, the nation of Mexico was born. The number of Mexicans living in Texas had dropped during the fight for freedom. The years of fighting the Spanish had taken its toll. Only about 2,500 Mexicans remained in Texas and the land was over run by Indians. The Spanish wanted more Mexicans in Texas to protect it from the US taking it over. But life was harsh.
Moses Austin In 1820 Moses Austin met with Governor Martinez of Spain to request permission to establish a colony in Texas. Moses was given permission to settle three hundred families in Texas. There were other means of owning a piece of Spanish Texas besides rebellion. Land Grant
The new land grant was the fertile farmland between the Colorado and Brazos Rivers.
Moses Austin Moses Austin paved the way for Anglo American colonization of Texas. However, he died in 1821, before his dream to colonize Texas was realized. His dying wish was that his son, Stephen, fulfill his vision to colonize Texas.
Stephen F. Austin Stephen F. Austin was given permission to colonize, and thus the first Anglo Americans came to Texas. They felt like part of Texas belonged to them since they had permission to settle and had purchased land.
Just as Austin was making headway in establishing his colony, he learned that Mexico had finally won independence from Spain. His land grant was no longer valid in the new government, so he traveled to Mexico City and asked the new government of Mexico for permission to colonize.
empresario It took a year, but eventually Austin was given the title of empresario. empresario An empresario was someone who arranged business deals including the buying and selling of land. Empresario Stephen F. Austin
Austin’s colony began to flourish. By 1830, over 200 people lived in the capital of the colony, San Felipe de Austin. Old Three Hundred The original three hundred families to settle in Austin's colony became known as the Old Three Hundred.
empresarios Austin’s colony was very successful. Other businessmen became empresarios and settled more families on their own land grants around Austin’s colony.
We have now seen three flags fly over Texas, and various individuals make claims to the land. Let’s review the progression of the Texas ownership.
SpainFrance First, both Spain and France had claims to Texas during the years of exploration from the late 1500’s through the late 1600’s. France had claims in East Texas. Spain had claims to the American Southwest, which included most of Texas.
Eventually, Spain claimed most of the Americas including all of Texas. France no longer had claims on America with the sale of the Louisiana Purchase (1803) to the US.
filibusters Meanwhile, adventurous individuals called filibusters tried to take parts of Texas and create independent states. James Long Philip Nolan Guiterrez-Magee Expedition
Empresarios Empresarios such as Stephen F. Austin were given land grants to settle Texas. Land Grant
Eventually, Mexico won independence from Spain. So by 1821, three flags had flown over Texas- just three more to go! Spain Mexico France
The Anglo American colonization of Texas was well under way. However, with colonization came conflict between the Mexican government and the colonists.
What do you think will be sources of conflict between these two groups? ANSWER THE QUESTION ON YOUR POST-IT NOTE AS YOUR TICKET OUT TODAY.
PRE-AP: In your journal Create a time line that includes EVERY date from the notes taken from the Fillibuster-Empresario power point