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Unit 5: Mexican National Era.

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1 Unit 5: Mexican National Era

2 Timeline Copy the timeline on pages 106 and 107. Answer the following questions: When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain? When did Martin deLeon establish his settlement at Victoria? Who received grants in 1826 to settle southeastern Texas? When did Stephen F. Austin receive the last of his grants from the Mexican government?

3 Timeline Six on top and five on bottom
When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain? 1821 When did Martin deLeon establish his settlement at Victoria? 1824 Who received grants in 1826 to settle southeastern Texas? David Burnet, Lorenzo de Zavala, and Joesph Vahlein When did Stephen F. Austin receive the last of his grants from the Mexican government? 1828

4 Review What happened in 1820? Define filibuster.
Why is 1821 so important? Who was Philip Nolan? Define Tejano. Who was Dr. James Long? Who is known as the “Mother of Texas?” Why? Why did settlers not want to move to Texas? What happened in 1803? What’s one main reason why New Spain (Mexico) wanted to be free (independent) from Spain?

5 KEY TERMS constitution- a written statement outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country is governed empresario- an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colony filibuster- a person who wages an unofficial war on a country Immigration- people who come to a country to settle Tejano- a person of Mexican descent living in Texas country is governed militia- group of armed citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency census- official count of the population of a region Representative Government- government that allows its citizens to elect other citizens to make decisions for a large group of citizens.

6 Characteristics of the Mexican National Era
The Mexican Constitution of 1824 The Old Three Hundred Moses Austin Stephen F. Austin Erasmo Seguin Sr. Martin deLeon Empresarios Agriculture San Felipe de Austin Battle of Medina

7 Important Years 1820- Moses Austin gets permission from Spanish authorities to colonize Texas with Americans. 1821- Mexico gets its independence from Spain. 1821- Stephen F. Austin continues his father’s dream by settling 300 families from the U.S. National Colonization Laws 1824- Mexican Constitution of 1824 Empresario Contracts are drawn.

8 Key Filibusters Phillip Nolan- Dr. James Long- Jane Long-
filibuster from the U.S. Mustang (a type of horse) trader rumored to be a spy against Spain the U.S. killed by Spanish soldiers near present-day Waco Dr. James Long- led a group to free Texas from Spanish rule captured and shot by a Mexican soldier Jane Long- wife of Dr. James Long gave birth to possibly the first U.S. citizen born in Texas known as the “Mother of Texas”

9 Unrest in Texas There were only three major Spanish towns in Texas: Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and La Bahia. France ceded Louisiana to Spain in However, in 1800, war in Europe put the Louisiana territory back in the hands of France. France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803. Some Americans thought that Texas was part of Louisiana.

10 Unrest in Texas During the 1700s, not many settlers lived in Texas.
Settlers did not want to move to Texas because of the hostile Native Americans. On top of the problems with the Native Americans, Spain was losing control over its territories. In 1810, Mexico began a ten-year struggle with Spain over its independence.

11 Cry of Dolores Citizens of New Spain (Mexico) resented Spain’s control. They did not like paying taxes to support the king and his wars. The class system kept most of New Spain’s residents in poverty. Spain’s class system: Peninsulares- highest class; Spanish born in Spain Criollos- middle class; Spanish born in New Spain Mestizos- lower class; mixed Spanish and Native American citizens Native Americans- lowest class

12 Cry of Dolores Miguel Hidalgo, a priest from Dolores, started a revolt to end the peninsulares. The criollos refused to support the revolt. The mestizos and Native Americans joined Hidalgo in the revolt. Hidalgo was betrayed by one of his officers. Spanish soldiers shot and killed him. Although this revolt failed, it started other citizens to begin thinking about freedom from Spain.

13 Mexico Fights for Independence
Gutierrez-Magee Expedition- a group of men led by Jose Bernado Gutierrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Augustus Magee (former U.S. soldier) They wanted to free Texas from Spanish rule. They wanted to continue Father Hidalgo’s rebellion against Spain. Jose Gutierrez de Lara leader of the Mexican Republican Army of the North and opposed Spanish rule supported several filibuster expeditions first governor of Mexican Texas created a Mexican state constitution for Texas Battle of Medina Fought August 18, 1813 along the Medina River (south of San Antonio) between the Gutierrez-Magee expedition and the Spanish royalist army The Gutierrez-Magee expedition lost but encouraged others to fight for independence.

14 Mexico: An Independent Nation
After the Gutierrez-Magee expedition lost the Battle of Medina, citizens continued to fight for independence. It took several years, and in 1821, Agustine de Iturbide (conservatives’ leader) and Vicente R. Guerrero (rebel leader) agreed on the Plan of Iguala. Under the Plan of Iguala: Mexico would become an independent nation. Peninsulares and criollos would be equal. The Catholic church would keep its power. With this plan in action, Spain lost control of New Spain. On August 24, 1821, Mexico became an independent nation.

15 Mexico: An Independent Nation
When Mexico won its independence from Spain, Texas automatically became part of Mexico’s territory. This new nation had problems: Poor people wanted more power. Wealthy people wanted to keep their power. The number of Mexicans living in Texas had dropped. In addition to the problems listed above, Mexico also had concerns about its powerful neighbor, the United States. To protect Texas from other countries, Mexico wanted more Mexican citizens living there.

16 Review Who was Miguel Hidalgo? What was his revolt called?
Was his revolt successful? What happened as a result of the Cry of Dolores? What was the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition? Include the goals of this expedition in your answer. Who fought in the Battle of Medina? What was the outcome? Which two guys worked together and came up with the Plan of Iguala? What were the stipulations under this plan? Mexico won its independence from Spain in What happened to Texas? What problems did Mexico have as a new nation? From which powerful country did Mexico try to protect Texas?

17 Mexican Federal Constitution
The Mexican Federal Constitution was written three years after Mexico became an independent nation, in 1824. Under the Mexican Constitution of 1824: Catholicism became the official religion (no other religion could be practiced). Slavery is restricted. It made Mexico a well-defined representative federal republic. It created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces. The republic took the name of United Mexican States and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion.

18 A New Wave of Settlement
To increase settlement, the Mexican government allowed immigrants (people from other countries) to settle in Texas. Because the Mexican government was worried that the United States would try to take Texas, Colonization Laws were put in place. Under these laws: Settlers could get large amounts of land at low costs. Settlers would not have to pay taxes for the next six years. Settlers from the United States would have to become Mexican citizens. Empresarios were granted with land contracts. State Colonization Law of 1825 Set up guidelines to the colonization of Coahuila y Tejas Allowed Stephen F. Austin and other empresarios to receive land grants in Texas

19 Empresarios Each empresario promised to bring a number of settlers to Texas within a few years. The empresario’s job was to find the right kind of people to settle in Texas. Criminals, homeless people, filibusters, or anyone with bad morals were not allowed to settle in Texas. Mexico’s government wanted steady, reliable people in Texas.

20 Slavery in Texas The Mexican government did not allow slavery in Texas. However, most of the original colonists came from Louisiana, Alabama, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Empresarios were afraid that if they didn’t allow slavery, colonists wouldn’t come. A loophole was created to allow colonists to bring slaves to Texas. 1821- Colonists could bring slaves to Texas and buy land depending on the number of slaves bought. Mexico offered full citizenship to free blacks, including land ownership and other privileges. 1823- The sale or purchase of slaves was forbidden in Texas and required the children of slaves to be freed when they turned fourteen. 1827- The legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional slaves and granted freedom at birth to all children born to a slave. 1829- Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception to Texas. 1830- Importation of slaves was illegal in Texas.

21 Empresarios in Texas Moses Austin a really good businessman
In 1820, he was the first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas. His goal was to settle families in Texas. Before he could reach his goal, Moses Austin became ill and died. He shared his plans to settle 300 families in Texas with his son, Stephen F. Austin.

22 POP Quiz Why did settlers not want to move to Texas?
Which filibuster was rumored to be a spy against Spain for the U.S.? Which filibuster led a group to free Texas from Spain? Why did Mexico want to be independent from Spain? Name two people who fought for independence from Spain. Why did the Mexican government not want people from the U.S. to settle in Texas? Under the Constitution of 1824, what was the official religion? Under the Colonization Laws, what’s one thing the Mexican government used to persuade settlers to come to Texas? In order for them to settle in Texas, people from the U.S. had to become what? Put these events in order: -Mexico gets its independence Moses Austin gets permission to colonize Texas with AC Mexican Constitution of 1824 established

23 POP Quiz Which empresario became known as the “Father of Texas?” Why?
Who had a goal of settling 300 American families in Texas but died before he could reach his goal? Who was the second most successful empresario? Who was the only Mexican empresario in Texas? What was the main reason (besides no taxes for six years) people moved to Texas?

24 Be ready to take your Pop Quiz when I walk in the classroom.
No, You can NOT use your notes on this quiz. Yes, it will be a quiz grade. STUDY your notes!!!

25 Empresarios in Texas Stephen F. Austin
promised to carry out his father’s goal of settling 300 families in Texas took over his father’s land grant and was the first American to settle Americans in Texas in 1821 successfully settled three hundred families (The Old Three Hundred) and became the most successful empresario chose an area in East Texas between the Colorado and Brazos Rivers to settle families This area was good for agriculture and far from hostile Native Americans. known as the “Father of Texas”

26 Empresarios in Texas Stephen F. Austin
To attract settlers to Texas, land was offered at really cheap prices. Land in the United States was offered at $1.25 an acre, and land in Texas was only 12¢ an acre. To join Austin’s colony, settlers had to: pledge their loyalty to Mexico give up their rights as United States citizens adopt the Catholic religion be hard working have good character (no liars, no cheaters, no thieves) Austin’s colony was a success.

27 Empresarios in Texas Erasmo Seguin Martin deLeon was a Tejano
the most successful rancher in Texas sent to represent Texas in the Mexican congress helped write the Mexican Constitution of 1824 helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in Texas Martin deLeon the only Mexican empresario to found a colony in Texas settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas along the Guadalupe River founded the town of Victoria with his wife in 1824

28 Empresarios in Texas Green DeWitt second most successful empresario
settled 166 families in the area near present-day Gonzales established the town of Gonzales learned from Moses Austin was given the same land as Martin deLeon Officials sided with deLeon and pushed DeWitt’s colony further west. .0+

29 Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas
Reasons the Spanish settled in Texas: to lay claim to Texas to secure Spanish control in Texas to find gold, silver, and other resources increase Spanish population in Texas Spanish method of settling in Texas: mission-presidio system .0+

30 Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas
Reasons the Mexican settled in Texas: better economic (money) opportunities have better ranches (large amounts of fertile soil) increase Mexican population Mexican method of settling in Texas: empresario grants .0+

31 Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas
Reasons the Anglo (a white, English-speaking person; used in contrast to Hispanic) Settled in Texas: better economic (money) opportunities chance to have a new start chance to escape debt in other countries to increase the Anglo population in Texas Anglo method of settling in Texas: empresario grants .0+

32 5th & 6th PERIODS Write about your most memorable (favorite) Thanksgiving. Write at least five (5) sentences. Tell me why it’s your favorite Thanksgiving. Be detailed. ELABORATE! Take out your study guide. .0+

33 Which empresario had the most impact on Texas history? Why?

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