2TimelineCopy the timeline on pages 106 and 107. Answer the following questions:When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain?When did Martin deLeon establish his settlement at Victoria?Who received grants in 1826 to settle southeastern Texas?When did Stephen F. Austin receive the last of his grants from the Mexican government?
3Timeline Six on top and five on bottom When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain? 1821When did Martin deLeon establish his settlement at Victoria? 1824Who received grants in 1826 to settle southeastern Texas? David Burnet, Lorenzo de Zavala, and Joesph VahleinWhen did Stephen F. Austin receive the last of his grants from the Mexican government? 1828
4Review What happened in 1820? Define filibuster. Why is 1821 so important?Who was Philip Nolan?Define Tejano.Who was Dr. James Long?Who is known as the “Mother of Texas?” Why?Why did settlers not want to move to Texas?What happened in 1803?What’s one main reason why New Spain (Mexico) wanted to be free (independent) from Spain?
5KEY TERMSconstitution- a written statement outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country is governedempresario- an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colonyfilibuster- a person who wages an unofficial war on a countryImmigration- people who come to a country to settleTejano- a person of Mexican descent living in Texascountry is governedmilitia- group of armed citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergencycensus- official count of the population of a regionRepresentative Government- government that allows its citizens to elect other citizens to make decisions for a large group of citizens.
6Characteristics of the Mexican National Era The Mexican Constitution of 1824The Old Three HundredMoses AustinStephen F. AustinErasmo Seguin Sr.Martin deLeonEmpresariosAgricultureSan Felipe de AustinBattle of Medina
7Important Years1820- Moses Austin gets permission from Spanish authorities to colonize Texas with Americans.1821- Mexico gets its independence from Spain.1821- Stephen F. Austin continues his father’s dream by settling 300 families from the U.S.National Colonization Laws1824- Mexican Constitution of 1824Empresario Contracts are drawn.
8Key Filibusters Phillip Nolan- Dr. James Long- Jane Long- filibuster from the U.S.Mustang (a type of horse) traderrumored to be a spy against Spain the U.S.killed by Spanish soldiers near present-day WacoDr. James Long-led a group to free Texas from Spanish rulecaptured and shot by a Mexican soldierJane Long-wife of Dr. James Longgave birth to possibly the first U.S. citizen born in Texasknown as the “Mother of Texas”
9Unrest in TexasThere were only three major Spanish towns in Texas: Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and La Bahia.France ceded Louisiana to Spain in However, in 1800, war in Europe put the Louisiana territory back in the hands of France.France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803.Some Americans thought that Texas was part of Louisiana.
10Unrest in Texas During the 1700s, not many settlers lived in Texas. Settlers did not want to move to Texas because of the hostile Native Americans.On top of the problems with the Native Americans, Spain was losing control over its territories.In 1810, Mexico began a ten-year struggle with Spain over its independence.
11Cry of DoloresCitizens of New Spain (Mexico) resented Spain’s control.They did not like paying taxes to support the king and his wars.The class system kept most of New Spain’s residents in poverty.Spain’s class system:Peninsulares- highest class; Spanish born in SpainCriollos- middle class; Spanish born in New SpainMestizos- lower class; mixed Spanish and Native American citizensNative Americans- lowest class
12Cry of DoloresMiguel Hidalgo, a priest from Dolores, started a revolt to end the peninsulares.The criollos refused to support the revolt.The mestizos and Native Americans joined Hidalgo in the revolt.Hidalgo was betrayed by one of his officers. Spanish soldiers shot and killed him.Although this revolt failed, it started other citizens to begin thinking about freedom from Spain.
13Mexico Fights for Independence Gutierrez-Magee Expedition-a group of men led by Jose Bernado Gutierrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Augustus Magee (former U.S. soldier)They wanted to free Texas from Spanish rule.They wanted to continue Father Hidalgo’s rebellion against Spain.Jose Gutierrez de Laraleader of the Mexican Republican Army of the North and opposed Spanish rulesupported several filibuster expeditionsfirst governor of Mexican Texascreated a Mexican state constitution for TexasBattle of MedinaFought August 18, 1813 along the Medina River (south of San Antonio) between the Gutierrez-Magee expedition and the Spanish royalist armyThe Gutierrez-Magee expedition lost but encouraged others to fight for independence.
14Mexico: An Independent Nation After the Gutierrez-Magee expedition lost the Battle of Medina, citizens continued to fight for independence.It took several years, and in 1821, Agustine de Iturbide (conservatives’ leader) and Vicente R. Guerrero (rebel leader) agreed on the Plan of Iguala.Under the Plan of Iguala:Mexico would become an independent nation.Peninsulares and criollos would be equal.The Catholic church would keep its power.With this plan in action, Spain lost control of New Spain.On August 24, 1821, Mexico became an independent nation.
15Mexico: An Independent Nation When Mexico won its independence from Spain, Texas automatically became part of Mexico’s territory.This new nation had problems:Poor people wanted more power.Wealthy people wanted to keep their power.The number of Mexicans living in Texas had dropped.In addition to the problems listed above, Mexico also had concerns about its powerful neighbor, the United States.To protect Texas from other countries, Mexico wanted more Mexican citizens living there.
16Review Who was Miguel Hidalgo? What was his revolt called? Was his revolt successful?What happened as a result of the Cry of Dolores?What was the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition? Include the goals of this expedition in your answer.Who fought in the Battle of Medina? What was the outcome?Which two guys worked together and came up with the Plan of Iguala?What were the stipulations under this plan?Mexico won its independence from Spain in What happened to Texas?What problems did Mexico have as a new nation?From which powerful country did Mexico try to protect Texas?
17Mexican Federal Constitution The Mexican Federal Constitution was written three years after Mexico became an independent nation, in 1824.Under the Mexican Constitution of 1824:Catholicism became the official religion (no other religion could be practiced).Slavery is restricted.It made Mexico a well-defined representative federal republic.It created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces.The republic took the name of United Mexican States and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion.
18A New Wave of Settlement To increase settlement, the Mexican government allowed immigrants (people from other countries) to settle in Texas.Because the Mexican government was worried that the United States would try to take Texas, Colonization Laws were put in place. Under these laws:Settlers could get large amounts of land at low costs.Settlers would not have to pay taxes for the next six years.Settlers from the United States would have to become Mexican citizens.Empresarios were granted with land contracts.State Colonization Law of 1825Set up guidelines to the colonization of Coahuila y TejasAllowed Stephen F. Austin and other empresarios to receive land grants in Texas
19EmpresariosEach empresario promised to bring a number of settlers to Texas within a few years.The empresario’s job was to find the right kind of people to settle in Texas.Criminals, homeless people, filibusters, or anyone with bad morals were not allowed to settle in Texas.Mexico’s government wanted steady, reliable people in Texas.
20Slavery in TexasThe Mexican government did not allow slavery in Texas.However, most of the original colonists came from Louisiana, Alabama, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Empresarios were afraid that if they didn’t allow slavery, colonists wouldn’t come.A loophole was created to allow colonists to bring slaves to Texas.1821- Colonists could bring slaves to Texas and buy land depending on the number of slaves bought.Mexico offered full citizenship to free blacks, including land ownership and other privileges.1823- The sale or purchase of slaves was forbidden in Texas and required the children of slaves to be freed when they turned fourteen.1827- The legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional slaves and granted freedom at birth to all children born to a slave.1829- Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception to Texas.1830- Importation of slaves was illegal in Texas.
21Empresarios in Texas Moses Austin a really good businessman In 1820, he was the first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas.His goal was to settle families in Texas.Before he could reach his goal, Moses Austin became ill and died.He shared his plans to settle 300 families in Texas with his son, Stephen F. Austin.
22POP Quiz Why did settlers not want to move to Texas? Which filibuster was rumored to be a spy against Spain for the U.S.?Which filibuster led a group to free Texas from Spain?Why did Mexico want to be independent from Spain?Name two people who fought for independence from Spain.Why did the Mexican government not want people from the U.S. to settle in Texas?Under the Constitution of 1824, what was the official religion?Under the Colonization Laws, what’s one thing the Mexican government used to persuade settlers to come to Texas?In order for them to settle in Texas, people from the U.S. had to become what?Put these events in order:-Mexico gets its independence Moses Austin gets permission to colonize Texas with AC Mexican Constitution of 1824 established
23POP Quiz Which empresario became known as the “Father of Texas?” Why? Who had a goal of settling 300 American families in Texas but died before he could reach his goal?Who was the second most successful empresario?Who was the only Mexican empresario in Texas?What was the main reason (besides no taxes for six years) people moved to Texas?
24Be ready to take your Pop Quiz when I walk in the classroom. No, You can NOT use your notes on this quiz.Yes, it will be a quiz grade.STUDY your notes!!!
25Empresarios in Texas Stephen F. Austin promised to carry out his father’s goal of settling 300 families in Texastook over his father’s land grant and was the first American to settle Americans in Texas in 1821successfully settled three hundred families (The Old Three Hundred) and became the most successful empresariochose an area in East Texas between the Colorado and Brazos Rivers to settle familiesThis area was good for agriculture and far from hostile Native Americans.known as the “Father of Texas”
26Empresarios in Texas Stephen F. Austin To attract settlers to Texas, land was offered at really cheap prices.Land in the United States was offered at $1.25 an acre, and land in Texas was only 12¢ an acre.To join Austin’s colony, settlers had to:pledge their loyalty to Mexicogive up their rights as United States citizensadopt the Catholic religionbe hard workinghave good character (no liars, no cheaters, no thieves)Austin’s colony was a success.
27Empresarios in Texas Erasmo Seguin Martin deLeon was a Tejano the most successful rancher in Texassent to represent Texas in the Mexican congresshelped write the Mexican Constitution of 1824helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in TexasMartin deLeonthe only Mexican empresario to found a colony in Texassettled 200 Mexican families in South Texas along the Guadalupe Riverfounded the town of Victoria with his wife in 1824
28Empresarios in Texas Green DeWitt second most successful empresario settled 166 families in the area near present-day Gonzalesestablished the town of Gonzaleslearned from Moses Austinwas given the same land as Martin deLeonOfficials sided with deLeon and pushed DeWitt’s colony further west..0+
29Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas Reasons the Spanish settled in Texas:to lay claim to Texasto secure Spanish control in Texasto find gold, silver, and other resourcesincrease Spanish population in TexasSpanish method of settling in Texas:mission-presidio system.0+
30Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas Reasons the Mexican settled in Texas:better economic (money) opportunitieshave better ranches (large amounts of fertile soil)increase Mexican populationMexican method of settling in Texas:empresario grants.0+
31Purposes and Methods for Settling in Texas Reasons the Anglo (a white, English-speaking person; used in contrast to Hispanic) Settled in Texas:better economic (money) opportunitieschance to have a new startchance to escape debt in other countriesto increase the Anglo population in TexasAnglo method of settling in Texas:empresario grants.0+
325th & 6th PERIODSWrite about your most memorable (favorite) Thanksgiving.Write at least five (5) sentences.Tell me why it’s your favorite Thanksgiving.Be detailed.ELABORATE!Take out your study guide..0+
33Which empresario had the most impact on Texas history? Why? .0+