Presentation on theme: "Central European Monarchs Clash"— Presentation transcript:
1Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 5Section 3
2Main IdeasAfter a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs ruled Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia.Prussia built a strong military tradition in Germany that contributed in part to world wars in the 20th century.
3IntroductionThe Peace of Augsburg (1555) had temporarily settled their religious differences.They had agreed that the faith of each prince would determine the faith of their subjects.Churches in Germany could be Lutheran or Catholic, but not Calvinist.Peace was short-lived and was replaced by a long war.
5Bohemian Protestants Revolt 1618 – War began.Ferdinand II - head of the Hapsburg family.Ruled Czech republic of Bohemia.Protestants in Bohemia did not trust Ferdinand.He was a Catholic & a foreigner.Closed some Protestant churches.RevoltSends army to crush revolt.
6The Thirty Years’ WarLutheran and Catholic princes tried to gain followers.Both groups felt threatened by Calvinism because it was spreading through Germany and gaining many followers.Tension continued and the Lutherans formed the Protestant Union.The Catholic princes then formed the Catholic League.With two groups ready to fight, it wouldn’t take much to set off a war.
7Beginning of Thirty Years’ War German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor.This began the Thirty Years’ War.Conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families.Two phases: Hapsburg triumphs & Hapsburg defeats.
8Hapsburg TriumphsDuring the first twelve years, Hapsburg armies crushed Protestant armies.Ferdinand paid his army of 125,000 men by allowing them to rob German villages.This army destroyed everything in its path.
9Hapsburg DefeatsSwedish army drove the Hapsburg armies out of Germany.Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants.They wanted the French king to stay the most powerful.Finished off the Hapsburg armies.
10Ending the War War greatly damaged Germany. It’s population dropped by 4 million.Germany’s economy was ruined.Peace of Westphalia ended the war.
11Peace of Westphalia This treaty had many consequences: Weakened Spain & Austria (Hapsburg states)Strengthened France by awarding it German territory.German princes became independent of Holy Roman emperor.Ended religious wars in Europe.New method of peace negotiation.
12Beginning of Modern States The treaty banned the idea that the Catholic empire would rule most of Europe.Recognized Europe as a group of equal, independent states.Basically, the Catholic Church loses control.
13States Form in Central Europe Strong states formed more slowly in central Europe than western Europe.Major central powers:PolandHoly Roman EmpireOttoman EmpireNone were very strong until the mid-1600s.
15Economic Contrasts with the West Economy was very different from western Europe.In the West – serfs slowly won freedom & moved to towns.Became middle-class & gained economic power.Central Europe passed laws restricting the ability of serfs to gain freedom & move to cities.Wanted serfs to produce large harvests.Sell the surplus to western Europe.
16Several Weak EmpiresCentral Europe also blocked the development of strong kings.Ottoman Empire had already expanded as far as possible.Began to decline.Holy Roman Empire was seriously weakened by the Thirty Years’ War.No longer had any real power.
17Austria Grows Stronger Hapsburgs tried to become absolute monarchs.1. Conquered Bohemia.2. Centralized the government & created an army.3. Took Hungary back from the Ottoman Empire.
18Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne With Austria increasing their territory, they wanted to make sure that they kept it.Charles VI had other European leaders sign an agreement recognizing his daughter, Maria Theresa as the heir to all Hapsburg territories.She still faced years of war.Main enemy Prussia.
19Maria Theresa Looked out for working class. Decreased power of the nobility.Mother of Marie Antoinette.
20Prussia Challenges Austria Prussia rose to power in the late 1600s, like Austria.Prussia’s ruling family = Hohenzollerns.Prussia had ambitions that upset Europe’s balance of power.
21The Rise of PrussiaControlled small German states of Brandenburg and Prussia.Frederick William controlled Brandenburg.Decided that a strong army was needed to ensure safety.Moved toward absolute monarchy.Created strongest army in Europe.
22Frederick the GreatFrederick William worried that his son, Frederick, was not military enough to rule.Loved music, philosophy & poetry.Tried to run away with a friend when he was young.Punishment? Watched his friend get beheaded.
23Frederick the Great (cont.) Followed in his father’s military policies.Softened some of his father’s laws.Encouraged religious toleration & legal reform.Believed a ruler should be a father to his people.
24War of Austrian Succession Maria Theresa succeeded her father.Frederick wanted Austrian land that bordered Prussia.He underestimated Maria’s strength.He sent his army in 1740 & started a war.Maria stopped Prussia.But pursuant to a treaty, Prussia received the land.
25The Seven Years’ War Maria Theresa made an alliance with France. Frederick became scared and signed a treaty with Great Britain.Austria, France, Russia, etc. v. Britain & Prussia.Prussia & Austria had switched allies.Russia played a role in European affairs for the first time.
26Seven Years’ War (cont.) Frederick attacked Saxony, Austria’s ally.All European powers were involved in war.Fought in Europe, India & North America.Did not change any territory in Europe.Britain got France’s colonies.Prussia emerges as a European power.