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Chapter 4 Section 4.  Voltaire, a French philosopher, said that the Holy Roman Empire was a patchwork of several hundred small, separate states.  In.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Section 4.  Voltaire, a French philosopher, said that the Holy Roman Empire was a patchwork of several hundred small, separate states.  In."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Section 4

2  Voltaire, a French philosopher, said that the Holy Roman Empire was a patchwork of several hundred small, separate states.  In theory, these states were under control of the Holy roman Emperor  He was chosen by seven German princes called electors.  In practice, the emperor had little power over the many rival princes.  Religion further divided the German states, and this sparked the Thirty Years’ War.

3  War had both religious and political causes.  Began in Bohemia, presently the Czech Republic  Ferdinand, Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sought to suppress Protestants and assert royal power over local nobles.  In May 1618, a few Protestant nobleman tossed two royal officials out of a castle window.  This started a general conflict, which turned into a general European War.

4  The following year, Ferdinand was named the Holy Roman Emperor.  He tried to roll back the Reformation, with the support of Spain, Poland, and many Catholic States.  Early on in the war, he defeated the Bohemians and their Protestant Allies  Immediately after, Protestant Powers such as Netherlands and Sweden sent troops to Germany.  Political Issues quickly outweighed religious issues, and many rulers shifted their alliances to suit their interests.  Eventually, Catholic France joined Lutheran Sweden against the Catholic Hapsburgs.

5  Armies of mercenaries, or soldiers for hire, burned villages, destroyed crops, and killed without mercy.  Murder and torture were followed by famine and disease.  The war led to depopulation, or reduction of population.  Historians estimate that one third of the people in German states died from the war.

6  In 1648, the sides accepted a series of treaties, known as the Peace of Westphalia.  France came out as a clear winner. They gained territory on both it German and Spanish Frontiers.  The Hapsburgs were the losers because they had to accept the total independence of all the princes of the Holy Roman Empire.  Netherlands and Switzerland won recognition as independent states.

7  Germany ended up divided into 360 separate states.  They still acknowledged leadership of the Holy roman emperor.  Each state had its own coinage, government, armed forces, state church, and foreign policy.  Germany remained fragmented for another 200 years.

8  Weakened by war, Hapsburgs wanted to create a strong united state.  Kept title of Holy Roman emperors.  Along with Austria, they added Bohemia, Hungary, and parts of Italy and Poland.

9  Uniting the lands were very difficult.  In the Hapsburg Empire, people had their own languages, laws, assemblies, and customs.  The Hapsburgs did exert control over these diverse peoples.  The Hapsburg Empire never developed a centralized government.

10  In 1700s, emperor Charles VI had no son to take his place as ruler.  His daughter, Maria Theresa, was capable, but no woman had ever ruled Hapsburg lands.  Charles asked many rulers to recognize his daughter’s right to succeed him, but many ignored their pledge.

11  In 1740, Frederick II of Prussia seized control of a Hapsburg province.  Maria asked Hungarians for military help, but they were unfriendly with her.  She eventually got help from Britain and Russia.  Throughout the war, she strengthened Hapsburg power by reorganizing the bureaucracy and improving tax collection.

12  Prussia emerged as a new Protestant power  In 1600s, the Hohenzollern family ruled parts of north Germany.  They eventually conquered many other states and they set up a central bureaucracy and reduced independence of nobles, called Junkers.  Many Prussian rulers formed one of the best trained armies in Europe.  They won loyalty of Junkers by giving them positions in government or army.

13  Frederick William trained his son Frederick II in the art of war  Frederick II preferred playing the flute and writing poetry.  His dad treated him terribly because of this, and Fred JR. tried to flee the country  Finding out about this, Frederick William put his son in solitary confinement.

14  Shortly after becoming king, Fred Jr. used his army to seize Silesia from Austria.  In many other wars, Fred Jr. brilliantly used his army, forcing all to accept Prussia as a great power.  This is how he became Frederick the Great.

15  By 1750, the great powers of Europe were Austria, Russia, Prussia, France, and England.  Formed alliances to maintain balance of power  Sometimes, rivalries caused worldwide conflict.

16  Mercenary- Soldier for hire, only fights for the highest bidder  Depopulation- Loss of population due to war, famine, or disease  What country did the Hapsburg’s rule, actually what country and empire? Austria  What was the group of Princes called that selected the Holy Roman Emperor? Electors  What did the Holy Roman Emperor want to roll back in Europe? Protestant Reformation/Protestant Tide  What was the war called the ended with the Peace of Westphalia? 30 years war  Who was the first female empress of Austria? Maria Theresa

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