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Mutations Hollywood’s images of mutation Mutations Actual Mutations in fruit flies.

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Presentation on theme: "Mutations Hollywood’s images of mutation Mutations Actual Mutations in fruit flies."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Mutations Hollywood’s images of mutation

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6 Mutations Actual Mutations in fruit flies

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9 What is a mutation? A mutation is any change in a cell’s DNA A mutation can occur in an individual gene - results in a single changed protein - cystic fibrosis a mutation in the protein that makes a type of ion channels in cell membrane - bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an example of a beneficial gene mutation

10 What is a mutation continued A mutation can occur in a chromosome - a chromosome contains many genes - chromosomal mutations affect many proteins Examples: Down Syndrome Edward’s Syndrome Cri-du-Chat

11 What Causes Mutations? Can be caused by mutagens- a physical or chemical cause of mutation. Examples: UV light, radiation, drugs, and benzene. Mutagens are often also carcinogens – anything that causes cancer Can be natural, random events. - mutations occur in 1/100,000 DNA replications Mutations do not have to be bad (evolution)

12 Point Mutations A single nucleotide is altered. Can change one amino acid in a protein Example of a point mutation is a substitution Milk – Mile GGACAATCA GGACCATCA proline -valine-serine proline-glycine-serine

13 Frameshift Mutations A nucleotide is either inserted or deleted from a gene. -all of the triplets from the point of mutation onward will be changed

14 Frameshift Mutations Insertion An insertion occurs when a nucleotide is added to a gene Example: A nucleotide is inserted The fat cat ate the rat The faa tca tat eth era t -the extra nucleotide shifts all of the triplets that follow

15 Frameshift Mutations Deletions A deletion occurs when a nucleotide is removed from a gene. Example: A nucleotide is removed The fat cat ate the rat Thf atc ata tet her at

16 Insertion GGACAATCA GCGACAATCA proline -valine-serine arginine-cysteine-stop Deletion GGACAATCA GGAAATCA proline -valine-serineproline-leucine

17 Vocabulary Mutation Mutagen Carcinogen Point mutation Frameshift mutation - insertion - deletion

18 Chromosomal Mutation: change in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell; usually caused by problems during meiosis or a mutagen Mutagen: an agent that causes a DNA mutation Ex: UV, radiation…

19 Deletion: a mutation in which part of the chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing

20 Duplication: a mutation in which part of the chromosome or a sequence of DNA is repeated

21 Inversion: a mutation in which part of the chromosome or a sequence of DNA is flipped or rotated

22 Translocation: a mutation in which part of the chromosome or a sequence of DNA is removed from one chromosome and relocated or attached to another chromosome


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