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Mutations Chapter 12.4.

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Presentation on theme: "Mutations Chapter 12.4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mutations Chapter 12.4

2 Mutation A result of changes in individual genes or the gene arrangements on chromosomes Original code (order of bases) is changed 2 different kinds Gene mutation Chromosome mutation

3 Gene Mutations Mutations occurring within a gene
Usually a letter change, removal, or addition Three different types: Deletion Insertion Point mutation

4 Gene deletions and insertions
Gene deletion  nucleotide is left out Gene insertion  an extra nucleotide is added These are called frame-shift mutations causes the order of bases to switch, which causes change in codons, which in turn changes amino acid sequence

5 Point mutations Point mutation  a base is substituted for one other base Will only affect one amino acid in the protein

6 Point Mutation - Deletion

7 Chromosome Mutations Mutations that occur within a chromosome or between chromosomes 4 different types: Deletions Duplications Inversions Translocations

8 Deletions and Duplications
Chromosomal deletion  part of a chromosome are removed Chromosomal duplication  part of a chromosome is duplicated

9 Inversion and Translocation
Chromosomal inversion  portion of a chromosome is reversed Chromosomal translocation  part of one chromosome attaches to another, different chromosome


11 Mutagens Mutagen an agent that causes a mutation
environmental factors such as radiation, heat, and chemicals

12 Passing On of Mutations
Mutations that occur in “body cells” do not get passed on to offspring Mutations that occur in “sex cells” do get passed on to offspring

13 Mutation and Evolution
Mutations could cause a new allele for a characteristic Mutations could also be the fuel that drives evolution individuals that underwent mutations may be better suited for survival than the original

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