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Theories of Personality Chapter 14. Personality The totality of behavioral characteristics that set people apart from others. (feelings, motives, behaviors)

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Personality Chapter 14. Personality The totality of behavioral characteristics that set people apart from others. (feelings, motives, behaviors)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Personality Chapter 14

2 Personality The totality of behavioral characteristics that set people apart from others. (feelings, motives, behaviors) The totality of behavioral characteristics that set people apart from others. (feelings, motives, behaviors) Various theories we will discuss: Trait, Various theories we will discuss: Trait, Psychoanalytic, Learning, Humanistic, Psychoanalytic, Learning, Humanistic, Sociocultural Sociocultural

3 The Trait Approach A trait is an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable – consistent behaviors A trait is an aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable – consistent behaviors Example: always shy or outgoing

4 Gordon Allport s He found 18,000 words in the dictionary that could describe personality. He found 18,000 words in the dictionary that could describe personality. He assumed that traits could be inherited and are the building blocks of your personality. He assumed that traits could be inherited and are the building blocks of your personality.

5 Raymond Cattell Using statistics and patterns, he believed we can predict people’s behavior in various situations. Using statistics and patterns, he believed we can predict people’s behavior in various situations. Surface traits – obvious traits Surface traits – obvious traits (friendly, loud) (friendly, loud) Source traits – traits in a group that occur Source traits – traits in a group that occur together together

6 He created a list of 16 source traits He created a list of 16 source traits A questionnaire would be given and based on responses, one could predict how they would react in various situations. A questionnaire would be given and based on responses, one could predict how they would react in various situations.

7 Cattell's 16 Personality Factors – Source traits Abstractednessimaginative versus practical Apprehensioninsecure versus complacent Dominanceaggressive versus passive Emotional Stabilitycalm and stable versus high-strung and Livelinessenthusiastic versus serious Openness to Changeliberal versus traditional Perfectionismcompulsive and controlled versus indifferent Privatenesspretentious versus unpretentious Reasoningabstract versus concrete Rule Consciousnessmoralistic versus free-thinking Self-Relianceleader versus follower Sensitivitysensitive versus tough-minded Social Boldnessuninhibited versus timid Tensiondriven and tense versus relaxed and easy going Vigilancesuspicious versus accepting Warmthopen and warmhearted versus aloof and critical

8 A hypothetical personality profile using Cattell’s 16 personality factors

9 Hans Eysenck He focused on the relationships between two personality dimensions He focused on the relationships between two personality dimensions 1. Introvert – Extrovert = inward vs. active, self-expressive 1. Introvert – Extrovert = inward vs. active, self-expressive 2. Emotional stability – instability = reliable, unpredictable 2. Emotional stability – instability = reliable, unpredictable

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11 The Big 5 = 1970’s Most human personality traits can be boiled down to five broad dimensions of personality. Most human personality traits can be boiled down to five broad dimensions of personality. Thousands of people were asked hundreds of questions then analyzing the data with a statistical procedure known as factor analysis. Thousands of people were asked hundreds of questions then analyzing the data with a statistical procedure known as factor analysis. The Big Five is now the most widely accepted and used model of personality The Big Five is now the most widely accepted and used model of personality

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14 14 Endpoints

15 Evaluation of Trait Approach It does not explain where traits come from. It does not explain where traits come from. It describes traits but does not suggest how one can change It describes traits but does not suggest how one can change It is useful in matching your personality with jobs, careers, educational fields, or possible marriage partners (ex. harmony or match.com) It is useful in matching your personality with jobs, careers, educational fields, or possible marriage partners (ex. harmony or match.com)

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17 17 Albert Bandura Social-Cognitive Perspective Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context.

18 14.2 Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud ( ) Sigmund Freud ( ) - He believed that conscious ideas fill only a small part of the mind. - He believed that conscious ideas fill only a small part of the mind. - Many of people’s deepest thoughts, fears, and urges remain in the unconscious mind. - Many of people’s deepest thoughts, fears, and urges remain in the unconscious mind. -3 parts of the mind: Id Ego Superego

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20 Defense Mechanisms Freud said D. M. were methods the “ego” uses to reduce anxiety by distorting our perceptions of reality. Freud said D. M. were methods the “ego” uses to reduce anxiety by distorting our perceptions of reality. - Using defense mechanisms can be healthy as long as it does not become extreme.

21 Repression Removal of painful thoughts from consciousness. Removal of painful thoughts from consciousness. Freud believed that repressing too much can explode at a later date. Freud believed that repressing too much can explode at a later date. “Teakettle blowing it’s top” “Teakettle blowing it’s top”

22 Rationalization Use of self-deception to justify unacceptable behavior Use of self-deception to justify unacceptable behavior Giving excuses! Giving excuses! Ex. Cheating = “Everybody does it…” Ex. Cheating = “Everybody does it…”

23 Displacement Transfer of an idea or impulse from a threatening object to a less threatening object. Transfer of an idea or impulse from a threatening object to a less threatening object. Ex. Criticized by boss…yell at coworker Ex. Criticized by boss…yell at coworker Fight with bf/gf…yell at mom…punch the wall Fight with bf/gf…yell at mom…punch the wall

24 Regression Response to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to a younger age Response to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to a younger age Ex. Temper tantrum Ex. Temper tantrum

25 Projection Unacceptable motives are transferred onto others Unacceptable motives are transferred onto others Like a projector shooting an image onto a screen Like a projector shooting an image onto a screen Ex. Homophobes? Or aggressive people claiming others are aggressive. Ex. Homophobes? Or aggressive people claiming others are aggressive.

26 Reaction Formation Acting opposite of true feelings in order to hide true feelings Acting opposite of true feelings in order to hide true feelings Ex. Being mean to someone you like or sickening sweet to someone you hate or sickening sweet to someone you hate

27 Denial Refusing to accept reality Refusing to accept reality Ex. Smoking won’t make me sick. Charlie Sheen… Charlie Sheen…

28 Sublimation You redirect feelings that could be damaging to you to a socially productive activity. You redirect feelings that could be damaging to you to a socially productive activity. Ex. Writing a poem about anger or aggressive…play football or boxing

29 Psychosexual Stages Freud divided development of personality through five psychosexual stages.

30 Neo-Freudians Jung believed in the collective unconscious which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. That is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurturance. Jung believed in the collective unconscious which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. That is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurturance.

31 Neo-Freudians Like Freud, Alfred Adler believed in childhood tensions, however these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with the inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. Like Freud, Alfred Adler believed in childhood tensions, however these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with the inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. **Birth order!

32 Neo-Freudians Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer “penis envy.” Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer “penis envy.”

33 Assessing Unconscious Processes Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind. Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.

34 Describe what is happening in the picture.

35 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Developed by Henry Murray, TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

36 Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test with a set of 10 inkblots was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. The most widely used projective test with a set of 10 inkblots was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

37 14.3 Learning Approach Peoples behaviors are learned responses 2 Branches: 2 Branches: A. Behaviorism – John Watson & BF Skinner believed outside influences mold us (society, parents, etc.) rewards, punishments B. Social Learning Theory – (more contemporary view) focuses on the importance of learning by observation but people can act intentionally to influence the environment.

38 14.5 Sociocultural Approach 1. Ethnicity, gender, culture help form personality. individualism vs. collectivism 2. Sociocultural factors can affect sense of self. ex. People subjected to discrimination & poverty may have poorer self-concepts, low self esteem 3. Bicultural people have higher self esteem.


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