Presentation on theme: "“A Multidimensional Approach To Sustainable Development And The Millennium Development Goals: The Santo Domingo Metro System As A Model For Mass Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:
“A Multidimensional Approach To Sustainable Development And The Millennium Development Goals: The Santo Domingo Metro System As A Model For Mass Sustainable Transport” Conference Room 6, U.N. Headquarters, New York May 3, 2010
Current conditions Global Impacts International trends Climate Change & Transport: Global Issue Up to date Global and local Impacts On going programs and projects Climate Change & Transport: Dominican Republic situation Tendencies and expectations for transport sector Towards a sustainable transport Future and Challenges
The transport is responsible of 23% of global energy consumption, and 13% of GHG emitted. The emissions are predicted to increased about 120% on 2000 levels by 2050. The IPCC recommend to decrease 50% developing countries and 80% developed countries.
The mobility is linked to economic growth of the countries. 97 % of increase in fuel use is attributed to transport sector (WEO 2009). Long-range transport of a variety of air pollutants remains an issue of concern for human and ecosystem health, and for the provision of ecosystem services. Billions of hours are being lost in congestion, with commensurate financial losses for economies businesses and individuals. ($90 billion/year, due partly to four billion hours (texas transportation institute)).
As with globalization, a two-way relationship exists between the environment and trade. Transport has increased as a result of increasing flows of goods and global production networks. Transport is now one of the most dynamic sectors in a modern economy, and has strong environmental impacts.
Urban transport is the planet’s fastest- growing source of GHG emissions. Rapid increases in the number of vehicles on city roads. Insufficient investment in urban transport planning and traffic management in developing countries are exacerbating.
Air pollution and decreasing economic productivity. Low-density, sprawling cities in developed countries are two to three times more expensive to run and service than more densely populated ones. Atmospheric emissions from the transport sector depend upon several factors, such as vehicle fleet size, age, technology, fuel quality, vehicle kilometers travelled and driving modes.
Fuel and vehicle technologies have improved substantially during the last two decades, driven by technological and legislative developments. Vehicle emissions have been partially controlled by the removal of lead from gasoline, requirements for catalytic converters, improved evaporative emission controls, fuel improvements, on-board diagnostic systems and other measures.
Diesel vehicle emissions have been reduced by improved engine design and, for some vehicles, particle traps. Widespread use of particle traps will await reductions of sulphur in diesel fuel to below 15 ppm. Reducing sulphur in gasoline to low levels enables use of more effective catalytic converters, thus leading to improved emission control. Hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles, which tend to be more fuel efficient in urban traffic than gasoline-only vehicles, have been introduced in many developed countries, but their use is still very limited.
Production and technology Improving transit Consumer Market
The Concepción system, includes plans to build four roadway corridors with 50 kilometers of exclusive bus way and three stations to integrate different modes of transport into the City’s bus system, a bus management centre, a centralized control system for railway traffic, improving the infrastructure of urban trains, and constructing 21.4 kilometers of bike lanes. Introducing large numbers of electric scooters and three-wheelers to replace conventional ones in Indian cities. Another envisages modern fleet-control telecommunications systems to streamline bus movements. In Chongqing, China. Mass transit cable cars linking to the metro system are being planned for hilly areas of the city of Medellin, Colombia. Among others Sustainable Mobility Initiatives for Local Environment (UE - LIFE) Sustainable Mobility Initiatives for Local Environment (UE - LIFE)
UNEP is demonstrating alternatives in Guatemala City Guatemala; Concepción City, Chile; Cartagena, Colombia; Dares- Salaam, Tanzania; and Jakarta, Indonesia in partnerships with the Network for Environmentally Sustainable Transport in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Institute for Transport Development and Policy, backed by funding from the Global Environment Facility.
The number of vehicles in the country is increasing up, there are almost 3:1
This picture describes a common situation of transport in the main avenue of Santo Domingo.
Carbon monoxide (CO) The main sources of carbon monoxide, almost anywhere, are motor vehicles, especially those that run on gasoline. It stands to reason that the vehicles in the Dominican Republic are high emitters of CO, since the age of the fleet is very high, in addition, as all vehicles are imported (and mostly used), it is recognized that relatively few units have catalytic converters, so that their emissions would be considerable.
PPM2.5 In recent years there has been particular attention to concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 micrometers in the fraction due to the high correlation between the pollutant and a wide range of damage to human health. Currently, measurements indicate that in the Dominican Republic PM2.5 concentrations are observed in all cases, greater than those acceptable according to the standards of air quality (EPA annual standard of 15 ug/m3 and daily 65 mg/m3).
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Mass transport – Metro de Santo Domingo is a rapid transit system in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The first line is part of a major "National Master Plan" to improve transportation.
The DR Metro project has an estimated emission reduction of 64,500 tons of CO2 per year (1 st trend)
The efficient end-use energy (including transport) should be promoted, it has short return periods and zero or very low cost. Improve mobility while reducing transport related CO2 emissions in a cost/effective way.
We need to reach a new international agreement on climate policy (Kyoto was not enough) for a rapid and widespread transformation in the transport sector. Action on transport can be an important source of reduction in demand for petro- fuels, fuel savings, adoption of alternative fuels, new technologies and construction of road infrastructure and mass transit.
Research and development programs and projects for successful policies. Measures as smart traffic control, will reduce pressure on the roads, congestion is already a problem on some streets, with inevitable loss to the economy. Increased uptake of public transport is essential will intend, that the government, absorb most of the forecast growth in traffic — but this requires it to be seen as an attractive alternative to the car. Therefore, significantly extend and improve its public mass transport, providing more trains, at more regular intervals and with shorter journey.
Mass transport is an important alternative to private vehicles, and has been successfully implemented in many cities by using light rail, underground and rapid bus transit systems. In many countries, widespread use of mass transport continues to be hampered, however, by inefficiency and negative perceptions.
Energetic efficiency Renewable energies Green buildings Clean Transport
Reducing transport’s impact is the single most cost-effective measure towards mitigation on climate change.