104 CornersRespect is an important value in our society.
11Each group will discuss the assigned topic below Each group will discuss the assigned topic below. You have 10 minutes to conduct a “crash” research.Qin Dynasty & LegalismHan Dynasty Government & ExpansionSilk Road & TradeChinese Religions & PhilosophiesChinese Social Structures/ HierarchyHan Achievements & InventionsDecline & Fall of the Han Dynasty
122.2.I. The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had beencompeting states.#1a-Qin Dynasty
13#1b-Qin Dynasty & Legalism Building of the Great Wall of China with Corvee LaborQin Shi Huangdi use of Legalism2.2.III.C. Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites. CorveePeasant Communities#1b-Qin Dynasty & LegalismTerra Cotta Warriors
14#2a-Han Dynasty2.2.I. The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had beencompeting states.2.2.III. Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.A. Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires. Chang’an
15#2b-Han Dynasty Government Bureaucracy of the Han Dynasty & Scholar-Bureaucrats#2b-Han Dynasty Government2.2.II. Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.2.2.II.A. In order to organize their subjects, the rulers created administrative institutions in many regions.Required examples of administrative institutions:• Centralized governments• Elaborate legal systems and bureaucraciesGovernment StructureCivil Service Examinations
16#3a-Han Dynasty: Silk Road Journey into Central Asia#3a-Han Dynasty: Silk RoadCoinsSilk Road2.3.I. Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere.A. Many factors, including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved, shaped thedistinctive features of a variety of trade routes.Required examples of trade routes:• Eurasian Silk Roads2.2.II.C. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.2.3.III.B. The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires.• The effects of disease on Chinese empires
17#3b-Han Dynasty: The Silk Road 2.3.II. New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.2.3.II.A. New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes. Yoke/Oxen
18#4a-Chinese Philosophies & Religion Chinese World ViewAncestor Veneration2.1.II.C. In the major Daoist writings, the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture.• Medical theories and practices• Architecture2.1.IV.B Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions.
19#4b-Chinese Philosophies & Religion Buddhism#4b-Chinese Philosophies & Religion2.1.II.A. The core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the search for enlightenment preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by hisfollowers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changedover time as it spread throughout Asia — first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings.2.3.III.C. Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread.Required examples of transformed religious and cultural traditions:• Buddhism2.1.V.C. The convergence of Buddhist beliefs affected the development of unique sculptural developments.Spread of Buddhism
20#4c-Chinese Philosophies & Religion Confucianism#4c-Chinese Philosophies & ReligionThe Analects2.1.II.B. Confucianism’s core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples whosought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China, including the rulers.2.1.III. Confucianism emphasized filial piety.
21#5-Chinese Social Structures/ Hierarchy 2.2.III.B. The social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.2.2.III.D. Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.Scholar-Gentry (Scholar bureaucrats)
22#6a-Han Achievements & Inventions Invention of Paper#6a-Han Achievements & InventionsCompass2.1.V. Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments.
24#7-Decline & Fall of Han Dynasty Taxation & Government SpendingExpansive Empire#7-Decline & Fall of Han Dynasty2.2.IV. The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they couldnot manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states.2.2.IV.A. Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites.• Deforestation• Desertification• Soil erosion• Silted rivers2.2.IV.B. External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions.Between Han China and the XiongnuThreats of Invasion by the Xiongnu (Asiatic Huns)
25“Zigong asked about government “Zigong asked about government. The Master said, “Sufficient food, sufficient military force, the confidence of the people.” Zigong said, “If one had, unavoidably, to dispense with one of these, which of them should go first?” The Master said, “Get rid of the military.” Zigong said, “If one had, unavoidably to dispense with one of the remaining two, which should go first?” The Master said, “Dispense with food: Since ancient times there has always been death, but without confidence a people cannot stand.” - Analects 12.7
26Primary Source Questions: Why would the ideas of Confucius have more appeal after followers realized that a tyrannical government that punished citizens harshly could be brought down by peasant rebellions?Why did Confucius think that culture trumped politics and the military in government?Why did Confucius believe that a cruel tyrant could not remain in power for very long?
27“If one desires to take the empire and act on it, I say that he will not succeed. The empire is a sacred vessel, that cannot be acted upon. In being acted upon, it is harmed; And in being grasped, it is lost. For among living things some move ahead and others follow, Some breathe easily and others hard, Some are strong and others are weak, Some rise up and others are brought low. Thus, the sage rejects the excessive, the extravagant, the extreme. - The Book of the Way and Its Power, Vol.1 p.86.
28Primary Source Questions: According to Master Lao (Laozi) what should long-term rule be based on?Why would the Legalists find Daoism more appealing than Confucianism as a practical political philosophy?