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Age of Exploration & Isolation 1400-1800. God, Glory, & Gold  Europeans had not been isolated from the rest of world before 1400s  1110 European Crusaders.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Exploration & Isolation 1400-1800. God, Glory, & Gold  Europeans had not been isolated from the rest of world before 1400s  1110 European Crusaders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Exploration & Isolation

2 God, Glory, & Gold  Europeans had not been isolated from the rest of world before 1400s  1110 European Crusaders battled Muslims for Holy Lands in SW Asia  1275 Marco Polo reached court of Kublai China  Before 1400s Europeans had not desire or capability to explore foreign lands  Desire to grow rich & spread Christianity, combined with new sailing technologies spurred age of European exploration

3 Europeans seek new trade routes  GOLD #1 reason- to seek new sources of wealth was main reason for exploration  By sailing, Europeans hoped to find new/faster sea routes to Asia  GLORY  Goals were to 1.Win access to these lands (BY SEA) 2.Bypass the Muslims & Italians who currently controlled trade  European monarchs got tired of paying Italians high prices for Asian goods  Spices (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper) Luxury goods  Merchants could take these back to Europe and make huge profits re- selling them  GOD- Spread of Christianity  Motivation for Europeans to explore  Crusades left Europeans feeling they had a sacred duty to fight the Muslims but to also convert non-Christians in Asia mostly

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5 New Technologies  Long voyages were impossible because European ships could not sail against the wind  Caravel- new ship  Stronger built than older ships  Triangular shaped sails allowed better navigation & ability to sail against the wind (Arab invention)  Astrolabe- used to determine sea  used to calculate latitude (determined location North/South)  Magnetic Compass  More accurately calculated direction  Invented by Chinese

6 Portugal Leads the Way  Leaders in applying new technologies  Strong support to explore by government  Prince Henry- Kings Son  Conquered Muslim city of Ceuta- captured spices/jewels  1 st country to establish trading posts along west coast of Africa  Eventually pushed farther into the Indian Ocean

7 Exploring Africa  Prince Henry  went to Africa in 1415  Discovered wealth beyond Europe- (pepper, cinnamon, spices, gold/silver, & jewels)  Determined to reach the source of these treasures in the east (Asia)  Also wanted to spread Christianity  Founded navigation school on Portugal’s SW coast  Mapmakers, instrument makers, ship builders, scientists, & captains came to perfect their trade  Within years the Portuguese had established many trading posts along the west coast of Africa  Trading for gold, jewels, & spices  Traded for Africa captives to be used as SLAVES  Started attempting a voyage to Asia

8 Portuguese Reach Asia  To reach Africa they believed they had to sail around tip of Africa  Bartolomeu Dias  1488 ventured down the west coast until they reached the tip  Storm battered them for days and pushed them to East coast  His crew was exhausted an low on supplies so he turned around and headed home  Vasco da Gama  1497 began exploring Africa’s east coast  1498 reached port of Calicut in India  Amazed by the spices, silks, and gems they found  Filled their ship with 60 times what the voyage cost and headed back to Portugal  His 27,000 mile trip established a direct sea route to Asia

9 Spain Gets Involved  Spanish monarchs began to desire a direct route to Asia  Christopher Columbus  Convinced monarchs that he could find a route to Asia by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean  October- he reached the Caribbean Islands (Bahamas)  He thought he had reached the East Indies  Opened door for colonization of Americas  Increased tensions between Spain & Portugal  Portuguese believed Columbus had reached Asia  Pope Alexander 6 th  Stepped in to keep the peace  Suggested an imaginary dividing line North/South through the Atlantic Ocean  Lands West were Spanish- most of the Americas  Lands East were Portuguese- Asia/Africa

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11 Treaty of Tordesillas  Portuguese argued that Spain was given too much territory  Lined moved farther west for Portuguese  Gives them Brazil  Portugal signs Treaty of Tordesillas  Started era of exploration & colonization

12 Trading Empires Clash  European nations scrambled to established trading posts along South/SE Asia  Battled each other and region’s inhabitants  Portugal  1509 defeated Muslim fleet off coast of India  Became masters of Indian trade  Captured islands of Moluccas- Spice Islands  Spices now cost Portuguese now cost 1/5 of what they used to cost  Spain-1521  Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Philippines  Settled them in 1565  Died during Civil war in Philippines crew made it home  First person to circumnavigate the world***

13 Nations Challenge Portugal  Netherlands- Dutch  Worlds largest fleet  20,000 ships  Battled mostly the English for control of lands in Asia  Dutch East India Company  Mint money  Make treaties  Raise armies  Richer/more powerful than English  Eventually drove English and established dominace over region

14 Dutch Dominance  Seized the spice Islands  Increased control over Indian Ocean  Amsterdam- Netherlands capital  Became leading commercial center  Established trading outposts in several Asian countries  Controlled Cape of Good Hope  Southern tip of Africa

15 England/France  Started establishing trading posts  Started East India Company  Never showed much profit  Limited influence in this region other than India  European traders began to seek new riches in China and Japan

16 Ch.3 Sec.1 Questions  How did Ferdinand Magellan die? Sea B.Killed in Philippines during civil war C.Heart attack D.Starved to death

17 Ch.3 Sec.1 Questions  What Dutch city became the trading capitol of the world due to exploration? A.London B.Amsterdam C.Rotterdam D.Luxemburg

18 Ch.3 Sec.1 Questions  Which European country dominated Indian trade and controlled the Cape of Good Hope in Africa? A.Spain B.Portugal C.Netherlands D.Chinese

19 Ch.3 Sec.1 Questions  Which Asian country was influenced by England and France during the 1400s Age of Exploration? A.Africa B.Philippines C.Australia D.India


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