Presentation on theme: "Europeans Explore the East. Breaking Out: Early European Contacts in Asia The Crusades (1096-1270) 1275 – Italian trader Marco Polo reached Kublai Khan’s."— Presentation transcript:
Breaking Out: Early European Contacts in Asia The Crusades (1096-1270) 1275 – Italian trader Marco Polo reached Kublai Khan’s court in China, but Europeans didn’t have the desire or ability to explore. Early 1400’s new tech. & desire to spread Christianity and get rich changed their minds.
The Goals: God, Gold, and Glory! God = To spread Christianity to Asia and Muslim-controlled areas Gold = To become wealthy through spice trade and new discoveries of resources Glory = To achieve personal fame and fortune; Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure
Europeans Desired New Trade Routes Desire for spices: nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger, and pepper Muslims sold to Italians, Italians sold in Europe Monarchs of Spain, Portugal, England, and France sought to bypass Italians – Greed! They wanted a new sea route directly to Asia!
New Technology Makes it Happen! Caravel (1400s) – sturdy, 65 ft. long, low keel, triangular sails – it could sail against the wind Astrolabe – adopted from Muslims, used rings to site stars and calculate latitude and longitude Magnetic Compass – adopted from Chinese
Portugal Leads the Way! 1415 – Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460, the son of King Henry, helped Portugal conquer Ceuta in North Africa. He desired wealth and to spread Catholic faith. Founded a navigation school in SW Portugal. Financed 14 voyages along Africa’s west coast and established trading posts there. Died heavily in debt.
Portugal Reaches Asia by Sea! 1488 – Bartolomeu Dias reached Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and was “blown around” the cape by a storm to the east coast. 1498 – Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut, India on the SW coast. His cargo of spices was worth 60 times the cost of the voyage – 27,000 miles in all!
What About Spain???? Oct. 1492 – Christopher Columbus, sailing west across the Atlantic, reached the Caribbean Sea south of Florida. He thought he was in India; so did the Portuguese. Bitter rivalry began between Spain and Portugal. Why was Columbus’ voyages so important if he really didn’t discover anything? $1 million ?
Pope Alexander VI Has to Referee! Do you remember me? Think Luther! 1493 – He drew a line N-S through the Atlantic Ocean; All lands W of the Line of Demarcation were Spain’s and all E were Portugal’s 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas moved line farther W into modern-day Brazil to make more fair to Portugal. Colonization was “on like Donkey Kong!”
Portugal Dominates Indian Ocean! Da Gama’s voyage led to Portugal’s domination of India; Muslim-Italian trade monopoly crushed by 1514! Built forts in Arabia, India’s W Coast, and Molouccas (the Spice Islands of Indonesia) Sold goods in Europe at 1/5 price of what Italians and Muslims charged! See Map Pg. 100
What Made Portugal So Tough? The Portuguese Man of War! Not the Jelly Fish by the same name What made these ships different from Muslim, Chinese, and Indian vessels of the era? Where there is smoke there is fire!
Other Nations Trade With Asia 1600 –Holland (1581 free from Spain) had 20,000 ships – the largest fleet in the world! With England – they battled Portugal for control of Asia. Dutch East India Co. was richer than British East India Co. so Holland won control of the region and South Africa. Flying Dutchman?
Dutch Trade Outposts 1619 – Dutch set up trade headquarters at Batavia on Java & seized port of Malacca and the Spice Islands from Portugal. Amsterdam became a leading trade center for Europe. 1700s – Cape of Good Hope and many trading posts in Asian nations.