3What is pronouns?a word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. she, it, this ).
5Type of PronounsThe term pronoun covers many words, some of which do not fall easily under the generic description of words that replace nouns. There are several different kinds of pronouns, including:Personal pronouns (e.g., he, they)Demonstrative pronouns (e.g., this, these)Interrogative pronouns (e.g., which, who)Indefinite pronouns (e.g., none, several)Possessive pronouns (e.g., his, your)Reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another)Relative pronouns (e.g., which, where)Reflexive pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)Intensive pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)
6Personal PronounsPersonal pronouns can be the subject of a clause or sentence.Personal Pronouns usually represent people or things.They are: I, he, she, it, they, we, and you. Example: “They went to the store.”
7Type of Personal Pronouns Subjective Personal Pronouns-The list above shows the subjective personal pronouns. These are the versions used for the subjects of verbs. For example:-You are happy. -They won the league.Objective Personal Pronouns-The objective personal pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. These are the versions used when the personal pronouns are objects (like direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions). For example:-Paul knows her. (The personal pronoun is a direct object.) -Paul gave them the letter.(The personal pronoun is an indirect object.) -Paul went with him.(The personal pronoun is an object of a preposition.)
8PersonSubjective CaseObjective CasePossessive Case Possessive AdjectivePossessive Case Absolute Possessive PronounsFirst Person SingularImemymineSecond Person SingularyouyouryoursThird Person Singularhe/she/ithim/her/ithis/her/itshis/hers/itsFirst Person PluralweusouroursSecond Person PluralThird Person Pluraltheythemtheirtheirs
9Demonstrative Pronouns The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. Like all pronouns, they replace nouns. Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace specific people or things that have been previously mentioned (or are understood from context). A demonstrative pronoun tells us whether it is replacing something singular or plural and whether that thing(s) is close by or farther away.
10Type of Demonstrative Pronouns Singular Pronouns This and that replace singular nouns. This represents something close by. For example: This is very smelly. That represents something farther away. For example: You can smell that from here.
11Type of Demonstrative Pronouns Plural Pronouns These and those replace plural nouns. These represents something close by. For example: These smell rotten. Those represents something farther away. For example: Do not paint those.
12Interrogative Pronouns The meaning of interrogative is having the force of a question.Interrogative pronouns produce information questions that require more than a “yes” or “no” answer.These pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. Who, which, what, where and how are all interrogative pronouns.
13These pronouns can also be used in sentences that are not questions These pronouns can also be used in sentences that are not questions. In those cases, these pronouns are not considered interrogative. There are several other words that start with a W – but watch out! They are not interrogative pronouns just because they are words that start with W and are in questions! For example, “when” is not an interrogative pronoun. Neither is “why” or "where."Also remember that unlike other pronouns, sometimes interrogative pronouns do not have antecedents because you are not yet sure what they really are!
14What is your favorite color? Whose shirt is this? Below are a few examples of interrogative pronouns being used correctly in questions:What is your favorite color?Whose shirt is this?Whatsoever do you mean by that?Whom were you speaking with last night?Which of these two do you prefer?These are a few examples that are incorrect: When do you have to wake up tomorrow?I don’t know where she was going.
15Indefinite PronounsWe use indefinite pronouns to refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they areIn short, An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.Indefinite pronouns can represent either count nouns or non-count nouns and include a number of sub- categories: universal (such as everyone, everything), assertive existential (such as somebody, something), elective existential (such as anyone, anything), and negative (such as nobody, nothing)
16Type of Indefinite Pronouns There are two categories of indefinite pronouns. The first category includes pronouns that refer to a nonspecific noun. These pronouns are:anybodyanyoneanythingeverybodyeveryoneeverythingnobodynoneno onenothingsomebodysomeonesomething
17The second category of indefinite pronouns are those that point to a specific noun whose meaning is easily understood only because it was previously mentioned or because the words that follow the indefinite pronoun m ake it clear. These pronouns are:allanotheranybotheacheitherfewmanyneitheronesomeseveral
18Examples in sentencesAll are welcome to come to the birthday party tonight.Lizzie gave that book to someone and never got it back.Anyone can play the game as long as they follow the rules.Does anybody have a clue where the dog went?Everyone knows it is impolite to point at someone.No one came forward to admit the crime, so the whole class was punished.Everyone had a great time at the Christmas party.At the Thanksgiving dinner, each brought a plated dish to make the meal complete.Marie told nobody the secrets that went on at her house.Someone called to tell me the horrible news.
19Possessive PronounsA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun in a sentence, making the subject a person or a thing. Possessive pronouns are pronouns that demonstrate ownerships. We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).
20Examples Possessive Adjectives my your his her its our their whose Absolute Possessive Pronouns mineyourshersourstheirs
22Examples in sentences I saw her book on your table. His hair is longer than hers.My dog is better than their dog.The kids are yours, mine, and ours.Whose book is on our desk?One’s treasure is special.The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.Is his car really that fast?The money was really theirs for the taking.We shall finally have what is rightfully ours.Their mother gets along well with yours.
23Reciprocal PronounsA reciprocal pronoun expresses a mutual action or relationship. In English, the reciprocal pronouns are:We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other. For example, A is talking to B, and B is talking to A. So we say:
24There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are both two words: -each other -one another When we use these reciprocal pronouns: there must be two or more people, things or groups involved (so we cannot use reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it), and they must be doing the same thing
25Examples in sentences John and Mary love each other. Peter and David hate each other.The ten prisoners were all blaming one another.Both teams played hard against each other.We gave each other gifts.Why don't you believe each other?They can't see each other.The gangsters were fighting one another.The boats were bumping against each other in the storm.
26Relative PronounsA relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that its relative clause modifies. We use who and whom for people, and which for things. Or we can use that for people or things.
27Function of Relative Nouns (1) identify it. For example: The lady who made your dress is waiting outside.(The noun is the lady. The relative pronoun is who. The adjective clause identifying the lady is shaded.) I saw the dog which ate the cake.(The noun being identified is the dog.) We did not know the tune that had been playing..(The noun being identified is the tune.)
28(2) tell us more information about it (2) tell us more information about it. For example: Mrs Miggins, who owns a pie shop, is waiting outside.(The noun is Mrs Miggins. The adjective clause tells us some information about her.) I rode my bike, which now had two flat tyres, back home.(The noun is my bike. The adjective clause tells us some information about it.)
29People or ThingsSubjective CaseObjective CasePossessive CasePeoplewho (The boy whorang the bell)whom (The boy whomyou met)whose (The boy whose bike was stolen)Thingswhich (The candlewhich melted)which (The candle whichyou made)whose (The candle whose wick had snapped)that (The dog that bit the postman)that (The dog that the postman hates)whose (The dog whose bark sounds like cough)
30Reflexive PronounsReflexive reflecting back on the subject of the sentences/clauses.It is usually used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subjectA reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause. Example: 1. I saw myself in the mirror.2. Why do you blame yourself?3. John sent himself a copy.
31Function of Reflexive Pronouns. It used when the subject and object are the same.EG: He shot himself.It used as the object of a preposition, when the subject and theobject are the same.EG: That man is talking to himself.C. It used when you want to emphasize the subject.EG: They ate all the food themselves.
33Intensive PronounsIt uses the reflexive pronouns to add emphasis to the subject of sentences.Intensive pronouns usually appear right near the subject of the sentence.Example: 1. Did yourself make the cake?2. I myself like a little stroll after dinner.3. We went to hear the man himself speak.
34Function of intensive pronouns It uses the same form as reflexive pronouns.EG: myself, yourself, himself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves2. Add Emphasis to the statements.EG: I myself like a little stroll after dinner.3. Works with the antecedent, the word the pronoun replaces.EG: I will do it myself.
35Exercise 1. Have …….. got a computer, Mandy? 2. Lisa did her homework herself……….. .3. We helped ………… to some cola at the party.4. There is an exam tomorrow. Needless to say, …….. has to study for it.5. We enjoy the roses so much. ………… really liven up the garden.6. Don’t blame yourself for the mistake. ……… is perfect.
367. Our holiday was perfect, ……… went as we wished. 8 7. Our holiday was perfect, ……… went as we wished. 8. The laptop is on the desk. ……… is on the desk. 9. Have you seen …….. ………. solution? 10. ……. are the signers of the Declaration of Independence?