2Why were introductions of new species into Europe so popular long ago? In 1749 Linneaus sent a colleague to NA to collect plantsDesired for use in decorative gardensClimate similar to Eastern NA and China but very different vegetationWhy were these introduction not a problem?Explained by biogeography
3Biotic ProvincesIn 1876 Wallace suggested that the world could be divided into six biogeographic regionsReferred to as realmsNeartic, Neotropical, Palaeartic, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian
5Biotic ProvincesAll living organisms classified into groups called taxaBased on evolutionary similaritiesLargest group- domain or kingdomDivisions/phylaClassesOrdersFamiliesGeneraSpecies
6Biotic ProvincesIn each major biogeographic area certain families of animals are dominant and fill ecological niches.For example large herbivoresNA- bison and pronghornSA- capybaraAus- kangarooAfrica- giraffes and antelope
7Biotic ProvincesWallace’s realms still valid and extend to all life forms.A biotic province is a region inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa, bounded by barriers that prevent emigration and immigration.
9Biotic Provinces W/in a realm Species more likely to be relatedEvolved and adapted in the same place for a long timeWhen a species introduced may be unrelated or distantly related to native species.Ecological and evolutionary adjustments are yet to take place.Introduced species may be superior competitor
10BiomesSimilar environments provide similar opportunities and similar constraintsLeads to evolution of organisms similar in form and functionRule of climatic similarity
12Example of Convergent evolution- given sufficient time and similar climates species similar in shape and form will tend to occur.Joshua TreeSaguaro from North AmericaEuphorbia of East Africa
13Biotic Province vs. Biome A biotic province is based on who is related to whom.An evolutionary unitA biome is based on niches and habitat.If we know the climate we can make predictions about the biome
15Ostrich from AfricaRhea from SAEmu from AustraliaDivergent evolution- population is divided and each evolves separately
16Geographical Patterns of Life within a Continent Continental drift periodically isolates and remixes groups of organismsLeads to increase in biodiversityComplex topography leads to geographic isolation w/in a continentLife patterns also altered byProximity of a habitat to an ocean (large body of water)Near shore ocean currentsLocation relative to mountain rangesLatitude and longitude
20Island Biogeography Small islands tend to have fewer habitat types A small population easily wiped out by a storm, flood, catastrophe or disturbance.The smaller the pop the greater the risk of extinctionThe farther an island is from the mainland the harder it is to reach.
21Island BiogeographyIslands tend to maintain consistent number of species over time.Result of the rate at which species addedMinus rate at which they become extinctConcept applies to ecological islandsA comparatively small habitat separated from a major habitat of some kind.
23Biogeography and People Biogeography affects biological diversityChanges in biodiversity affect people and resourcesEffects extend from ind to civilizations
24Biogeography and People People alter biodiversity byDirect huntingDirectly disturbing habitatsIntroducing exotic species into new habitatsIntroductions have mixed resultsFood sources, landscaping, petsDisastrous ecological consequences
25Earth’s Biomes Rules of moving species 1st less harmful if moved w/in biotic province2nd moving a specie into a new biome from a different biotic province likely to be harmful3rd local moves less likely to be harmful than global moves
26Earth’s Biomes 17 major biomes Usually named for the dominant vegetation typedominant shape or form of the dominant organismsdominant climatic conditions
29Biome patterns correspond to average summer temperature.
30Earth’s Biomes Biological diversity varies among biomes Two theories Generally declines with increasing latitudeTwo theoriesThe more favorable the temperature and precipitation for life the more diversity.Greater the variability of climate, the lower the diversity
31TundraTreeless plains that occur in harsh climates of low rainfall and low average temperature.Dominant vegetationGrasses, sedges, mosses, lichens, dwarf shrubs and mat-forming plantsPermafrost- permanently frozen groundExtremely fragile, long recovery time
33Taiga or Boreal ForestIncludes forests of the cold climates of high latitudes and high altitudesDominant vegetationConifers, especially spruces, firs, larches and some pinesBiodiversity is low (20 major species)Dominant animalsFew lg mammals, sm carnivores, sm rodentsMany insects and migratory birds
35Taiga or Boreal Forest Disturbances common Fire, storms, insectsContain some of Earth’s largest remaining wilderness areas.Commercial value
36Temperate Deciduous Forests Occur in climates somewhat warmer than those of boreal forest.Dominant vegetationTall deciduous trees (maple, beech, oak, hickory, and chestnut)Dominant animalsTend to be small mammalsBirds and insectsFew undisturbed stands of forest left
37Temperate Rain ForestOccur where temperatures are moderate and precipitation exceeds 250 cm/year.Dominant vegetationEvergreen conifers (some of the tallest trees in the world)Low diversity of plants and animalsImportant economically and culturally
39Temperate WoodlandsOccur where the temperature patterns are like those of deciduous forests but the climate is slightly drier.Dominant vegetationSmall trees (pinion pines and evergreen oaks)Fire disturbance common
40Temperate Shrublands Called chaparral, occur is drier climates Dominant vegetationDense shrubsDistinctly aromatic (sage)Dominant animalsReptiles and small mammals
41Temperate GrasslandsOccur in regions too dry for forests and too moist for deserts.Dominant vegetationGrasses and flowering plantsMany converted to agriculturedeep, rich soilsHighest abundance and greatest diversity of large mammalsGrasses and grazers evolved together
42Fire is important for the maintenance of Temperate Grasslands
43Tropical Rain ForestsOccur where the average temperature and rainfall are high and relatively constant throughout the year.Famous for their diversity of vegetation2/3 of known flowering plantsMany species of animals as wellSoils low in nutrients
45Tropical Seasonal Forest and Savannas Occur at low latitudes, where average temperature is high and relatively constant throughout the year and rainfall is abundant but very seasonal.Plant and animal diversity highLarge mammals of East AfricaDisturbance important to maintain grassland
46DesertsOccur in the driest regions where rainfall is less then 50 cm/year.Specialized vegetation, vertebrates and invertebrates.Water conserversSoils has low organic matter but abundant nutrientsNeed only water to become productive
50Wetlands Soil has little oxygen Dominant animals Bacteria that produce methane and hydrogen sulfideCoal bed productionDominant animalsSalt water marshes- Crabs, clamsFreshwater wetlands- insects, birds and amphibians
51Freshwaters Freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams Dominants Make up a very small portion of Earth’s surfaceCritical for water supply, material transportDominantsFloating algae, phytoplanktonAbundant animal life
53Freshwater Estuaries- areas at the mouths of rivers Rich in nutrientsAbundance of fish and important breeding sites for fishFreshwater among the most important biomes for life’s diversity.
54Intertidal AreasAreas exposed alternately to air during low tide and ocean waters during high tide.Constant flow of nutrients into and out of area.Rich in lifeSusceptible to pollutionAdaptation to disturbances is essential to survival in this biome.
56Open Ocean Pelagic region- includes waters in all of the oceans Vast areas low in nitrogen and phosphorusMany species but at low densityBenthosThe bottom portion of oceansPrimary input of food is dead organic matterNot enough light for plant growth
57Open Ocean Upwelling Hydrothermal Vents Upward flow of deep ocean waters brings nutrients to the surfaceAbundant growth of algae occurs and forms base to food chainHydrothermal VentsOccur in deep ocean where hot water w/ high concentration of sulfur compounds releasedChemosynthetic bacteria base of food chain