2Transitions and Thought Patterns Authors use two techniques to clearly show how ideas are related to one another:TransitionsThought Patterns
3TransitionsTransitions are words and phrases that signal thought patterns by showing the logical relationships within a sentence and between sentences.Example: Fernando is actively involved in several community organizations. Children know Fernando likes them because he goes on all the Boy Scout camping trips and he coaches a youth soccer league.
4Thought PatternsThought patterns are established by using transitions to show the logical relationship between ideas in a paragraph or passage.
5Example: Relationships Within a Sentence Weightlifting builds and tones muscles; it also builds bone density.
6Example: Relationships Between Sentences Robert and Dorothy had a fantastic time when they vacationed at Valhalla Resort on Marathon Key in Florida. They woke up before dawn every day so that they would not miss the beautiful sunrises….
7Thought PatternsThought patterns (or patterns of organization) are signaled by using transitions to show the logical relationship between ideas in a paragraph, passage, or textbook chapter.Some common patterns are:Time OrderSpace OrderListingClassification
8The Time Order PatternThe time order thought pattern generally shows a chain of events.The actions or events are listed in the order in which they occur (chronological order).There are two types:NarrationProcess
9Transitions Used in the Time Order Pattern for Narration AfterAfterwardAsBeforeCurrentlyDuringEventuallyFinallyFirstLastLaterWhileMeanwhileNextNowOftenPreviouslySecondSinceSoonThenUltimatelyUntilWhen
10ExampleWhen Corbin decided to become a teacher, he had no idea that he was also deciding to become a career student. His first notions of wanting only a bachelor’s degree were quickly dispelled. During those early years as a teacher, he found that the more he learned the more excited he was about teaching. Eventually, his passion for learning earned him a master’s degree and a doctorate degree.
11Transitions Used in the Time Order Pattern for Process (Steps, Stages, or Directions) AfterAfterwardAsBeforeCurrentlyDuringEventuallyFinallyFirstLastLaterWhileMeanwhileNextNowOftenPreviouslySecondSinceSoonThenUltimatelyUntilWhen
12ExampleTo ensure proper interdental cleaning, floss each day. First, break off about 18 inches of floss and wind most of it around one of your middle fingers. Second, wind the remaining floss around the same finger of the opposite hand. Third, hold the floss tightly between your thumbs and forefingers. Next, guide the floss between your teeth using a gentle rubbing motion; never snap the floss into the gums. Then gently slide it into the space between the gum and tooth.
13Space Order PatternThe space order pattern allows authors to describe a person, place, or thing based on its location or the way it is arranged in space.The writer often uses descriptive details to help readers create vivid mental pictures.
14Transition Words in the Space Order Pattern AboveAcrossAdjacentAroundAt the bottomAt the sideAt the topBackBackupBehindBelowBeneathBesideBeyondByCenterClose toDownFar awayFartherFrontHereInInsideLeftMiddleNext toNearbyOutsideRightThereUnderUnderneathWithin
15ExampleFrom their heads to the tips of their tails, humpback whales bear distinctive markings. On top a humpback whale is dotted with fleshy knobs called tubercles; a strand of hair with many nerve endings grows out of each tubercle.
16The Listing PatternAuthors list a series or set of reasons, details, or points.Changing the order of the details does not change their meaning.
17Addition Transitions Used in the Listing Pattern AndAlsoFurthermoreAnotherBesidesFinalFinallyFirstFirst of allFor one thingIn additionLastLast of allMoreoverNextOneSecondThird
18ExampleAn animal as large and beautiful as a horse needs to be cared for carefully. First, cleaning its stall on a regular basis is absolutely necessary. In addition, a horse needs to be groomed 3-5 times a week. Finally, a horse needs to be fed and exercised on a daily basis.
19The Classification Pattern Authors use the classification pattern to sort ideas into smaller groups and describe the traits of each group.Each smaller group, called a subgroup, is based on shared traits or characteristics.
20Transitions Used in the Classification Pattern Another (group, kind, type)CharacteristicsFirst (group, categories, kind, type)Second (group, categories, kind, type)OrderTraits
21Example“Wetlands” is a general term that includes several types of vital links between water and land. One type of wetland is a bog; it is characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic waters, and is covered by a carpet of sphagnum moss. Another type of wetland is the marsh, which is a wetland frequently swamped with water; it is characterized by soft-stemmed vegetation. Finally, a swamp is a type of wetland dominated by woody plants.
22Thought Patterns in Textbooks Textbook authors use transitions to make relationships between ideas clear and easy to understand.Often authors mix thought patterns in the same passage or paragraph.The effective reader looks for the author’s primary thought pattern.
23Chapter ReviewTransitions are words and phrases that show the relationships between ideas.A thought pattern is established by using transitions to show the logical relationship between ideas in a paragraph or passage.Narration and process are two uses of the time order thought pattern.Transitions of time signal that the writer is describing when something occurred.In addition to showing a chain of events, the time order pattern is used to show steps, stages, or directions that can be repeated at any time with similar results.
24Chapter ReviewTransitions of addition, such as and, also, and furthermore, are generally used to indicate a listing pattern.Authors use the classification pattern to sort ideas into smaller groups and describe the traits for each group.Examples of classification signal words are first type, second kind, or another group.The space order pattern allows authors to describe a person, place, or thing based on its location or the way it is arranged in space.Some of the words used to establish the space order pattern include adjacent, below, and underneath.
25PracticeComplete the Applications, Review Tests, and Mastery Tests for Chapter 6 in your textbook.Remember to complete your scorecard for the Review Tests in this chapter.