Presentation on theme: "RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNS"— Presentation transcript:
1 RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNS CHAPTER 7RECOGNIZING AUTHORS’ WRITING PATTERNSIN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN:What authors' writing patterns are and why it isimportant to be able to recognize themThe method for recognizing authors' writingpatterns
2 What are authors' writing patterns and why is it important to be able to recognize them?Writing patterns:Ways authors organize the information they present.Writing patterns are also known as organizational patterns,patterns of development, and thinking patterns.
3 Four advantages to recognizing authors’ writing patterns when you read:1. Your comprehension will improve.You will comprehend more because you will be able to follow and understand the writers' ideas more accurately and more efficiently.
4 2. You will be able to predict what is coming next. As soon as you identify the pattern, you can make predictions about what is likely to come next in a paragraph.Remember, effective readers are active readers who make logical predictions as they read.
5 It will be easier to memorize information when you study.You can memorize information more efficiently when you understand the way it is organized and will also be able to recall it more effectively.
6 4. Your writing will improve. Using these patterns when you write will enable you to write paragraphs that are clearer and better organized. This also means you can write better answers on essay tests simply by using appropriate patterns to organize information.
7 What is the method for recognizing authors' writing patterns? The pattern will be determined by the organization of the ideas in the entire paragraph or selection,not by the presence of a single signal word or clue.Seeing a word that can be used as a signal for a patterndoes not automatically mean that the entire paragraphhas that pattern.
8 The main idea sentence often contains important clues about which pattern is being used.After you have read a textbook paragraph, ask yourself the comprehension monitoring question,“What pattern did the author use to organizethe main idea and the supporting details?”
9 A group of items presented in no specific order, List pattern:A group of items presented in no specific order,since the order is unimportant.The list pattern is also known as listing pattern.
10 To emphasize or set off separate items in a list, authors often use:Words such as and, also, another, in addition, and moreover.Numbers (1, 2, 3), even when the order of the items is notimportant. Numbering items in a list is referred to asenumeration.Letters (a, b, c).Bullets (·).Asterisks (*).Certain punctuation marks, such as the colon (:).Phrases in the main idea sentence that suggest that thedetails will be presented as a list of items.
11 A list of items presented in a specific order Sequence pattern:A list of items presented in a specific orderbecause the order is important.The sequence pattern is also known astime order, chronological order, a process, or a series.
12 To emphasize or set off separate items in a sequence pattern, authors often use: Words such as first, second, third, then, next, finally.Words and phrases that refer to time, such as dates, daysof the week, names of months, or phrases such as duringthe twentieth century or in the previous decade.Enumeration (1, 2, 3).Letters (a, b, c).Signal words such as steps, stages, phases, progression,process, series, and even the word sequence. (Theseoften occur in the main idea sentence.)
13 Comparison-contrast pattern: Similarities (comparisons)between two or more things are presented,differences (contrasts)between two or more things are presented, or both.The comparison-contrast patternis also known asideas in opposition.
14 To signal comparisons, authors use words such as: similarlylikewisebothsamealso
15 To signal contrasts, authors use words such as: on the other handin contrasthoweverwhilewhereasalthoughneverthelessdifferentunlikesome … others
16 Contrasts are also signaled by words in a paragraph that have opposite meanings, such as:liberals and conservativesInternet users and non-Internet userspeople who attended collegeand people who never attended college
17 Cause-effect pattern: Reasons (causes) and results (effects)of events or conditions are presented.Authors use these words to indicate a cause:becausethe reasonscausesis due tois caused by
18 These words are often used to indicate an effect: thereforeconsequentlythusas a consequenceled tothe resultas a resultthe effect wasthis resulted inIn reality, causes always precede effects,and authors typically present causes first and then their effects.However, authors sometimes present an effectand then state its cause.
19 Where and how do authors use transition words in written material? Words and phrases that show relationships among ideas in sentences, paragraphs, and longer selections.Where and how do authors usetransition words in written material?Many paragraphs and selections begin with a sentenceor paragraph designed to get your attentionor to introduce the topic.
20 Some transition words indicate that Some transition words indicate that the author is continuing a train of thought or adding information.Some transition words indicate thatthe author is presenting an opposing view, a contrast,or an exception.Some transition words signal to the reader thatthe author is presenting causes (reasons things happen)or effects (the results or outcomes).Conclusion or summary statements typically appearat the end of the paragraph or selection.
21 when recognizing authors' writing patterns: Things to keep in mindwhen recognizing authors' writing patterns:Lists and sequences differ in an important way.Avoid identifying every paragraph as having a list pattern.Authors sometimes mix patterns in the same paragraph.A longer selection may contain several patterns and have an overall pattern as well.Many textbook paragraphs consist of only a definition and explanation of an important term.
22 Summary of Paragraph Pattern Signals and Clue Words 1. List pattern1, 2,a, b, c . . .bullets (·)asterisks (*)seriesstageswhenbefore, during, afterandalsoanothermoreoverin additionfirst, ... second, ... thirdfinallyat lastprocessspectrumcontinuumhierarchyinstructions and directionswords that announce lists(such as categories, kinds, types, ways, classes,groups, parts, elements, characteristics, features, etc.)
23 2. Sequence patternfirst, … second, … thirdnowthennextfinallydates1, 2,a, b, c . . .stepsphasesprogressionwords that refer to time
24 3. Comparison-contrast pattern Comparisonssimilarlylikewisebothsamealso resemblesparallelsin the same mannerin the same waywords that compare(adjectives that describe comparisons, such as safer, slower, lighter, more valuable, less toxic, etc.)Contrastsin contrasthoweveron the other handwhereaswhilealthoughneverthelessinstead (of)differentunlikeconverselyrather thanas opposed tosome othersopposite words
25 4. Cause-effect pattern Effects Causes the result(s) the effect(s) the outcomethe final productthereforethusconsequentlyas a consequencehenceon that accountresulted in, results in (effect)(effect) was caused by(effect) is due toled to (effect)(effect) resulted fromCausesthe reason(s)the cause(s)becauseis due to (cause)was caused by (cause)(cause) led toresulted from (cause)since
26 Cause-effect patternBoth the cause and the effect:(effect) is due to (cause)(effect) resulted from (cause)(effect) was caused by (cause)(cause) led to (effect)(cause) results in (effect)
27 Some questions that indicate cause-effect: What causes (effect)? (Answer will be the cause)Why does (effect) occur? (Answer will be the cause)What is the reason for (effect)? (Answer will be the cause)How can (effect) be explained? (Answer will be the cause)What does (cause) lead to? (Answer will be the effect)
28 AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD KNOW: What authors' writing patterns are andwhy it is important to be able to recognize themThe method for recognizing authors' writing patterns