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The West Between the Wars Chapter 17. Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security The Treaty of Versailles created new boundaries, states & occupied territories;

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Presentation on theme: "The West Between the Wars Chapter 17. Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security The Treaty of Versailles created new boundaries, states & occupied territories;"— Presentation transcript:

1 The West Between the Wars Chapter 17

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3 Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security The Treaty of Versailles created new boundaries, states & occupied territories; however many were unhappy. The Treaty of Versailles created new boundaries, states & occupied territories; however many were unhappy. The League of Nations was weak. The League of Nations was weak. France demanded reparations from Germany; when unable to pay, France occupied the Ruhr Valley. France demanded reparations from Germany; when unable to pay, France occupied the Ruhr Valley.

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5 The Dawes Plan: The Dawes Plan: Reduced reparations Reduced reparations Coordinated Germany’s payments with ability to pay Coordinated Germany’s payments with ability to pay Granted a $200 million loan (Am. Investment) Granted a $200 million loan (Am. Investment)

6 Treaty of Locarno Treaty of Locarno Guaranteed Germany’s borders with France and Belgium Guaranteed Germany’s borders with France and Belgium Germany joins League of Nations (1926) Germany joins League of Nations (1926) Kellogg-Briand Pact Kellogg-Briand Pact 63 Nations 63 Nations “renounce war” “renounce war” No reinforcement No reinforcement

7 Causes of the Great Depression # 3 in the Section Review Great Depression

8 The Great Depression Causes: Causes: 1. Slump in the economies of many nations 2. International financial crisis 3. U.S. Stock Market Crash Responses: Responses: Unemployed and homeless filled the streets. Unemployed and homeless filled the streets. Govt. interference in the economy Govt. interference in the economy Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines

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10 Worksheet questions Answer for each country (include vocab) Answer for each country (include vocab) How did the Great Depression affect the country? How did the Great Depression affect the country? What did the government do in order to help boost the economy? What did the government do in order to help boost the economy? What effect did these have on the country? Were the changes a success? How so? What effect did these have on the country? Were the changes a success? How so?

11 Germany Germany experienced major inflation which caused serious social problems. Germany experienced major inflation which caused serious social problems. A German democratic state was created known as the Weimar Republic. A German democratic state was created known as the Weimar Republic. The country was not able to pull themselves out of the Great Depression for a long time. The Germans were severely affected by unemployment during the depression and caused the rise of extremist parties. The country was not able to pull themselves out of the Great Depression for a long time. The Germans were severely affected by unemployment during the depression and caused the rise of extremist parties.

12 Great Britain Declines in the production industries led to a rise of unemployment. Declines in the production industries led to a rise of unemployment. The Labour Party failed to solve the economic problems. The Labour Party failed to solve the economic problems. Fell from power in 1931 Fell from power in 1931 A new Conservative led Gov. brought Britain out of the worst stages of the Depression by using traditional policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs. A new Conservative led Gov. brought Britain out of the worst stages of the Depression by using traditional policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs. Keynes- advocated deficit spending (going into debt). Keynes- advocated deficit spending (going into debt).

13 France France had a balanced economy France had a balanced economy Leftist parties formed the Popular Front government. Leftist parties formed the Popular Front government. Created the French New Deal which gave workers the right to collective bargaining – the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours Created the French New Deal which gave workers the right to collective bargaining – the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours France pulled out of the depression rather quickly due to a more balanced economy and the French New Deal France pulled out of the depression rather quickly due to a more balanced economy and the French New Deal

14 United States The U.S. production industry fell by half The U.S. production industry fell by half Roosevelt wanted a policy of active government intervention in the economy, that was called The New Deal. Roosevelt wanted a policy of active government intervention in the economy, that was called The New Deal. The New Deal created the U.S. welfare and social security system, including pensions and unemployment insurance. The New Deal created the U.S. welfare and social security system, including pensions and unemployment insurance. Although the New Deal didn’t solve the unemployment problem, eventually WW II would because of the need for weapons and supplies. Although the New Deal didn’t solve the unemployment problem, eventually WW II would because of the need for weapons and supplies.

15 RISE OF DICTATORS Section 2

16 The Political Spectrum The Political Spectrum The Political Spectrum

17 Rise of Dictators Totalitarian state – a government that aims to control political, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens. Totalitarian state – a government that aims to control political, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens. Wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects Wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects Propaganda Propaganda Modern communication Modern communication

18 Fascist Beliefs & Policies Fascism - a political movement that stresses extreme loyalty to the state and its leader. Fascism - a political movement that stresses extreme loyalty to the state and its leader. Support for Fascists comes from aristocrats, industrialists, veterans, and the lower middle class. Support for Fascists comes from aristocrats, industrialists, veterans, and the lower middle class.

19 Fascism similarities to Communism 1. Ruled by dictator & one party system 2. Both denied individual rights 3. State is supreme Difference is that Fascists didn’t want a classless society. Difference is that Fascists didn’t want a classless society.

20 Methods used by Mussolini Strict laws against those criticizing the regime Secret police, OVRA, had unrestricted authority Outlawed all other political parties Controlled mass media Promoted the main ideals of Fascism through organizations Made a deal with the Catholic Church to gain support

21 Mussolini in Power The perfect Italian – fit, disciplined, war loving, held traditional values. The perfect Italian – fit, disciplined, war loving, held traditional values. Family is the pillar of the state Family is the pillar of the state Catholic Church state religion Catholic Church state religion Still unable to truly control every aspect Still unable to truly control every aspect Large gap between ideals and practices Large gap between ideals and practices

22 A New Era in the Soviet Union Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP). Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP). allowed private ownership of small businesses allowed private ownership of small businesses Sell produce openly Sell produce openly Heavy industry and banking gov. run Heavy industry and banking gov. run the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Lenin dies 1924 – no successor named Lenin dies 1924 – no successor named

23 Politburo – the Communist Party’s main policy making body. Leon Trotsky Commissar of War Commissar of War Called for rapid industrialization Called for rapid industrialization Spread communism abroad ( world-wide revolution Spread communism abroad ( world-wide revolution Joseph Stalin Party general secretary Party general secretary Appointed officials (received their support) Appointed officials (received their support) Remove Bolsheviks from power Remove Bolsheviks from power end NEP end NEP

24 Economic Costs Stalin shifts from the NEP with his Five-Year Plans. Stalin shifts from the NEP with his Five-Year Plans. Transform the USSR into an industrial country Transform the USSR into an industrial country Maximum production of military equipment and capital goods Maximum production of military equipment and capital goods

25 Social Costs not much money spent on housing not much money spent on housing creation of slums creation of slums Private farms were eliminated under collectivization – a system in which private farms were eliminated and the government owned all of the land peasants worked on. Private farms were eliminated under collectivization – a system in which private farms were eliminated and the government owned all of the land peasants worked on. Strict laws limited movements Strict laws limited movements

26 Political Costs Strengthened hold over party. Strengthened hold over party. Those who resisted were sent to labor camps in Siberia. Those who resisted were sent to labor camps in Siberia. Old Bolsheviks removed or put to death Old Bolsheviks removed or put to death Promoted women’s rights Promoted women’s rights Divorce easier Divorce easier Women work Women work

27 StalinMussolini

28 Eastern Europe fall to Dictators In Hungary & Poland, the new democratic governments formed after WWI fall to dictators. In Hungary & Poland, the new democratic governments formed after WWI fall to dictators. By 1935, Czechoslovakia is the only democracy in eastern Europe. By 1935, Czechoslovakia is the only democracy in eastern Europe. they see authoritarian rule as the only way to prevent instability. they see authoritarian rule as the only way to prevent instability.

29 Spain Civil war in Spain leads to a Fascist dictatorship. Civil war in Spain leads to a Fascist dictatorship. Francisco Franco — a young general who rose quickly as dictator of Spain. Francisco Franco — a young general who rose quickly as dictator of Spain. Supported by Italy & Germany Supported by Italy & Germany The Soviet Union supported the Republican government The Soviet Union supported the Republican government Authoritarian more than totalitarian Authoritarian more than totalitarian

30 The ancient Basque village of Guernica was destroyed on April 26, 1937 by a German air force more interested in practicing than in any military aims.

31 Wave after wave of planes dropped heavy bombs as well as incendiary devices on the defenseless town. Fighter pilots strafed civilians attempting to escape.

32 Hundreds of Guernica citizens lost their lives during the raid. Up to one-third of the town's 5,000 residents were killed.

33 This image shows the center of Guernica shortly after the raid. Some three-quarters of all buildings in the town were damaged with the center almost completely destroyed. THENTHEN

34 NOWNOW

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36 Guernica by Pablo Picasso

37 RISE OF HITLER AND NAZI PARTY Section 3

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40 Hitler’s Germany Hitler wanted to create another Roman Empire Hitler wanted to create another Roman Empire Create an Aryan race that would dominate Europe Create an Aryan race that would dominate Europe Third Reich Third Reich Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire Germany empire after unification Germany empire after unification

41 Hitler’s Germany Use variety to maintain a totalitarian state Use variety to maintain a totalitarian state Schutzstaffeln (SS) – police force used to maintain order Schutzstaffeln (SS) – police force used to maintain order Directed by Heinrich Himmler Directed by Heinrich Himmler 2 principles – terror and ideology 2 principles – terror and ideology Chief goal was to further the Aryan race. Chief goal was to further the Aryan race.

42 Economic policies Economic policies Put people back to work to reduce unemployment Put people back to work to reduce unemployment propaganda propaganda press, radio, literature, painting and film press, radio, literature, painting and film Rallies (Nuremberg) Rallies (Nuremberg) Youth programs Youth programs Women’s roles Women’s roles Traditional role of wife and mother of the Aryan race Traditional role of wife and mother of the Aryan race Jobs reflected Nazi ideals for women Jobs reflected Nazi ideals for women

43 Anti-Semitic Policies

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45 Kristallnacht “night of broken glass”, November 9, 1938 “night of broken glass”, November 9, 1938 Destruction against Jewish synagogues, businesses, and people Destruction against Jewish synagogues, businesses, and people clean up everything from Kristallnacht clean up everything from Kristallnacht Many encouraged to leave the country Many encouraged to leave the country

46 Kristallnacht


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