3Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security The Treaty of Versailles created new boundaries, states & occupied territories; however many were unhappy.The League of Nations was weak.France demanded reparations from Germany; when unable to pay, France occupied the Ruhr Valley.
5The Dawes Plan: Reduced reparations Coordinated Germany’s payments with ability to payGranted a $200 million loan (Am. Investment)
6Treaty of Locarno Kellogg-Briand Pact Guaranteed Germany’s borders with France and BelgiumGermany joins League of Nations (1926)Kellogg-Briand Pact63 Nations“renounce war”No reinforcement
7Causes of the Great Depression # 3 in the Section ReviewGreat Depression
8The Great Depression Causes: Responses: Slump in the economies of many nationsInternational financial crisisU.S. Stock Market CrashResponses:Unemployed and homeless filled the streets.Govt. interference in the economyRenewed interest in Marxist doctrines
10Answer for each country (include vocab) Worksheet questionsAnswer for each country (include vocab)How did the Great Depression affect the country?What did the government do in order to help boost the economy?What effect did these have on the country? Were the changes a success? How so?
11GermanyGermany experienced major inflation which caused serious social problems.A German democratic state was created known as the Weimar Republic.The country was not able to pull themselves out of the Great Depression for a long time. The Germans were severely affected by unemployment during the depression and caused the rise of extremist parties.
12Great BritainDeclines in the production industries led to a rise of unemployment.The Labour Party failed to solve the economic problems.Fell from power in 1931A new Conservative led Gov. brought Britain out of the worst stages of the Depression by using traditional policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs.Keynes- advocated deficit spending (going into debt).
13France France had a balanced economy Leftist parties formed the Popular Front government.Created the French New Deal which gave workers the right to collective bargaining – the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hoursFrance pulled out of the depression rather quickly due to a more balanced economy and the French New Deal
14United States The U.S. production industry fell by half Roosevelt wanted a policy of active government intervention in the economy, that was called The New Deal.The New Deal created the U.S. welfare and social security system, including pensions and unemployment insurance.Although the New Deal didn’t solve the unemployment problem, eventually WW II would because of the need for weapons and supplies.
17Wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects Rise of DictatorsTotalitarian state – a government that aims to control political, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens.Wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjectsPropagandaModern communication
18Fascist Beliefs & Policies Fascism - a political movement that stresses extreme loyalty to the state and its leader.Support for Fascists comes from aristocrats, industrialists, veterans, and the lower middle class.
19Fascism similarities to Communism Ruled by dictator & one party systemBoth denied individual rightsState is supremeDifference is that Fascists didn’t want a classless society.
20Methods used by Mussolini Strict laws against those criticizing the regimeSecret police, OVRA, had unrestricted authorityOutlawed all other political partiesControlled mass mediaPromoted the main ideals of Fascism through organizationsMade a deal with the Catholic Church to gain support
21Family is the pillar of the state Catholic Church state religion Mussolini in PowerThe perfect Italian – fit, disciplined, war loving, held traditional values.Family is the pillar of the stateCatholic Church state religionStill unable to truly control every aspectLarge gap between ideals and practices
22A New Era in the Soviet Union Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP).allowed private ownership of small businessesSell produce openlyHeavy industry and banking gov. runthe Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)Lenin dies 1924 – no successor named
23Politburo – the Communist Party’s main policy making body. Leon TrotskyJoseph StalinCommissar of WarCalled for rapid industrializationSpread communism abroad ( world-wide revolutionParty general secretaryAppointed officials (received their support)Remove Bolsheviks from powerend NEP
24Stalin shifts from the NEP with his Five-Year Plans. Economic CostsStalin shifts from the NEP with his Five-Year Plans.Transform the USSR into an industrial countryMaximum production of military equipment and capital goods
25Social Costs not much money spent on housing creation of slumsPrivate farms were eliminated under collectivization – a system in which private farms were eliminated and the government owned all of the land peasants worked on.Strict laws limited movements
26Strengthened hold over party. Political CostsStrengthened hold over party.Those who resisted were sent to labor camps in Siberia.Old Bolsheviks removed or put to deathPromoted women’s rightsDivorce easierWomen work
28Eastern Europe fall to Dictators In Hungary & Poland, the new democratic governments formed after WWI fall to dictators.By 1935, Czechoslovakia is the only democracy in eastern Europe.they see authoritarian rule as the only way to prevent instability.
29Civil war in Spain leads to a Fascist dictatorship. Francisco Franco — a young general who rose quickly as dictator of Spain.Supported by Italy & GermanyThe Soviet Union supported the Republican governmentAuthoritarian more than totalitarian
30The ancient Basque village of Guernica was destroyed on April 26, 1937 by a German air force more interested in practicing than in any military aims.
31Wave after wave of planes dropped heavy bombs as well as incendiary devices on the defenseless town. Fighter pilots strafed civilians attempting to escape.
32Hundreds of Guernica citizens lost their lives during the raid Hundreds of Guernica citizens lost their lives during the raid. Up to one-third of the town's 5,000 residents were killed.
33THENThis image shows the center of Guernica shortly after the raid. Some three-quarters of all buildings in the town were damaged with the center almost completely destroyed.
40Hitler wanted to create another Roman Empire Hitler’s GermanyHitler wanted to create another Roman EmpireCreate an Aryan race that would dominate EuropeThird ReichHoly Roman EmpireGermany empire after unification
41Use variety to maintain a totalitarian state Hitler’s GermanyUse variety to maintain a totalitarian stateSchutzstaffeln (SS) – police force used to maintain orderDirected by Heinrich Himmler2 principles – terror and ideologyChief goal was to further the Aryan race.
42Economic policies propaganda Women’s roles Put people back to work to reduce unemploymentpropagandapress, radio, literature, painting and filmRallies (Nuremberg)Youth programsWomen’s rolesTraditional role of wife and mother of the Aryan raceJobs reflected Nazi ideals for women