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STEM CELLS Leah Yang. DEFINITION Stem cell: A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s)

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Presentation on theme: "STEM CELLS Leah Yang. DEFINITION Stem cell: A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s)"— Presentation transcript:

1 STEM CELLS Leah Yang

2 DEFINITION Stem cell: A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues

3 RELEVANCE Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into other cell/tissue types, which allows them to replace cells that have died. They have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects.

4 HISTORY 1998 - Researchers first extract stem cells from human embryos 1999 - First Successful human transplant of insulin-making cells from cadavers 2001 - President Bush restricts federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research 2002 - Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International creates $20 million fund-raising effort to support stem-cell research 2002 - California approves stem cell research 2004 - Harvard researchers grow stem cells from embryos using private funding 2004 - Ballot measure for $3 Billion bond for stem cells

5 CHARACTERISTICS capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods of time (proliferation and renewal) have the potential to give rise to specialized cell types (differentiation)

6 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS derived from extra blastocysts that would otherwise be discarded following IVF from five to six-day-old embryos can also be grown in lab by cell culture (see next slide) can proliferate for a year or more in the laboratory without differentiating

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8 ADULT STEM CELLS undifferentiated cells found among specialized or differentiated cells in a tissue or organ after birth they have a more restricted ability to produce different cell types and to self- renew (see next slide) can be found in many organs and tissues, including the brain and the heart

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10 KINDS

11 PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS pluripotent stem cells have more potential to become any type of cell

12 MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS multipotent stem cells are more limited in what they can become

13 INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS IPSCs are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state

14 APPLICATIONS tissue repair -nerve, heart, muscle, organ, skin cancers autoimmune diseases diabetes rheumatoid arthritis MS

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16 TISSUES stem cells can be used to regenerate spinal cord, heart tissue or any other major tissue in the body

17 BONE MARROW adult stem cells help with jumpstarting repair of eroded cartilage, and can replace damaged/destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells

18 HEART DISEASE adult bone marrow stem cells injected into the hearts are believed to improve cardiac function in victims of heart failure or heart attack

19 RISKS because stem cells injected into a patient are permanent, long term side effects may not be fully understood for years injection of embryonic stem cells may result in minor miscalculations – side effects are endless about 20% of rats injected with embryonic stem cells later die from some form of cancerous tumor

20 IMPORTANCE OF STEM CELL RESEARCH stem cells can replace diseased or damaged cells stem cells can be used to test different substances (drugs and chemicals) scientists can use stem cells to screen new drugs, and develop systems to study growth/identify the causes of birth defects stem cells allow us to study development and genetics


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