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© 2008 Prentice Hall6-1 Introduction to Project Management Chapter 6 Managing Project Scheduling Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, 1e Fuller/Valacich/George
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-2 What is Project Scheduling? The process of: – defining project activities – determining their sequence – estimating their duration Scheduling activities are part of project time management
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-3 Sequencing Requires: –Identification of any project technical constraints –Safety or efficiency considerations –Environmental politics –Availability of required resources –Completion of prerequisite processes
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-4 Scheduling Process Steps 1.Creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) to identify required project components 2.Defining the activities needed to complete each of these components 3.Determining the most efficient sequencing order of these components
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-5 Schedule Development & Usage Schedule developed during initiation or planning stage Followed and updated during the execution stage Used for project tracking during control stage
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-6 Top 5 Project Management Challenges 1.Lack of clarity in scope of the project 2.Shifting organizational priorities 3.Project changes not well managed 4.A lack of project management skills 5.Training of project sponsors
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-7 Project Schedule Modifications Why? –Business environment changes Internal – change of strategic objectives External – reaction to competitor actions –New technologies become available –Reaction to unforeseen events
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-8 Cone of Uncertainty
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-9 Ten Unmyths of Project Estimation 1.Accurate estimates are possible 2.Objective of estimating is to determine the end date 3.Estimate and commitment are the same 4.Project estimate is dependent on the size of the final system 5.Historical data is an accurate indicator of productivity
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-10 Ten Unmyths of Project Estimation (cont.) 6.Productivity is an accurate indicator of project duration 7.System size can be determined by the projected number of lines of code 8.Function points can be used to determine system size 9.Assigning more resources will speed up development of system 10.A defect-free system is possible given adequate time
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-11 Project Scheduling Impacted by: –Technologies New and sophisticated software Advancements in networking and web capabilities –Team processes Resource availability Resource allocation Resource assignment –Scheduling creation and execution Developed early Followed/monitored/changed throughout project Assist in determination of progress
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-12 Computer System Components
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-13 Product Breakdown Structure Microcomputer Input KeyboardMouse ProcessorStorage CD/RWUSB (Bill of Materials - BOM)
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-14 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Illustrates project scope Describes project subcomponents as: –Activities (verbs) – “install new plumbing” or – Deliverables (noun) – “new plumbing”
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-15
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-16 WBS Inputs Project scope management plan Project scope statement –Identifies deliverables –Major steps required to complete the project Experience with similar past projects Organizational process assets –Guidelines, organizational policies, procedures
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-17 WBS Techniques Decomposition participation includes: –Project team –Customers –Subject matter experts Major project deliverables identified Codes assigned to each WBS component –Level 0 - project itself –Level 1 - major deliverables –Level 2 - individual components of each deliverable –Etc. –Final level – work package
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-18 Work Package Lowest level of WBS Should contain activities that are short in duration (1 or 2 weeks) Work package activities can be completed by an individual or a small team All work packages should be similar in size or effort needed Provides input to scheduling and budget development
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-19 WBS Numbering System
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-20 WBS for ERP System
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-21 Three Decomposition Approaches Top-Down – traditional method Bottom-up – used for unique projects Rolling Wave – greater decomposition occurs as project components becomes more defined over time
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-22 Rolling Wave Planning
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-23 WBS Tools Templates Software –MS Visio – displays WBS in hierarchical form –MS Project – WBS displayed in tabular format (Gantt Chart)
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-24 Gantt Chart View of Microsoft Project
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-25 Outcome of WBS Development WBS Dictionary –Description of each component –Who is responsible for development –Statement of Work (SOW) –Important milestones –Estimate of costs and required resources
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-26 Outcome of WBS Development Possible update of project scope statement and scope management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-27 Outcome of WBS Development Scope Baseline The approved detailed project scope statementand its associated WBS and WBS dictionary. It specifies the deliverables and components; it serves to measure any deviation from the baseline during project execution.
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-28 Activity Definition Work packages broken down into discrete activities and attributes required to produce project deliverables Activity Definition includes: –Activity description –Resource requirements –Logical predecessor or successor activities
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-29 Required Inputs, Tools and Techniques Used, and Resulting Outputs During Activity Definition
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-30 How Much Activity Detail Is Required? Can be performed by one person or a well-defined group Has a single, clearly identifiable deliverable Has a known method or technique Has well-defined predecessor and successor steps Is measurable so that the level of completion can be determined Has a short duration – hours or days in length
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-31 Activity Tools & Techniques Templates Documentation from similar past projects Rolling wave planning can be applied
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-32 Activity Output Activity list Activity attributes –Description –Assumptions and constraints –Leads and lags(will be discussed later) –Logical relationships (will be discussed later) –Predecessor and successor activities Milestones Requested changes to project scope statement and WBS
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-33 Activity Sequencing Network diagram: a schematic display that illustrates the various activities (or tasks) in a project as well as their sequential relationships Sequential or parallel activity development
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-34 Required Inputs, Tools and Techniques Used, and Resulting Outputs During Activity Sequencing
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-35 Possible Sequencing Constraints Technical requirements and specifications Safety and efficiency Preferences and policies Resource availability
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-36 Network Diagram
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-37 Network Diagramming Methods Precedence diagramming method (PDM) Boxes and arrows Boxes represent project activity (called nodes) Arrows represent relationships among activities Arrow diagramming method (ADM) or Activity on Arrow (AOA) Arrows represent project tasks or activities Boxes represent milestones
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-38 Task Relationships
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-39 Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-40 Network Diagram in Microsoft Project
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-41 Additional Activity Type & Time Relationships Mandatory dependencies –Related activities that cannot be performed in parallel Discretionary dependencies –Relationships of activities based on preference of the project manager External dependencies –Relationship of project activities and external events
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-42 Additional Activity Type & Time Relationships (cont.) Lead Time –Time required by one task before another task can begin Lag Time –Amount of time delay between the completion of one task and the start of the successor
© 2008 Prentice Hall6-43 Questions?
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