2Fifteen Project Management Job Functions* Identify and evaluate risksPrepare contingency planIdentify interdependenciesIdentify and track critical milestonesParticipate in project phase reviewSecure needed resourcesManage the change control processReport project statusDefine scope of projectIdentify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation proceduresDevelop detailed task list (work breakdown structures)Estimate time requirementsDevelop initial project management flow chartIdentify required resources and budgetEvaluate project requirements
3Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK® Guide, 2000)
4Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38)
5Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK® Guide)
6Project PlanningThe main purpose of project planning is to guide executionEvery knowledge area includes planning informationKey outputs include:A team contractA scope statement (project charter)A work breakdown structure (WBS)A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all dependencies and resources enteredA list of prioritized risks
8Scope Planning and the Scope Statement A scope statement is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project scope. It should includea project justificationa brief description of the project’s productsa summary of all project deliverablesa statement of what determines project success
9Scope Planning and the Work Breakdown Structure After completing scope planning, the next step is to further define the work by breaking it into manageable piecesGood scope definitionhelps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimatesdefines a baseline for performance measurement and project controlaids in communicating clear work responsibilities
11The Work Breakdown Structure A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the projectIt is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes
12Approaches to Developing WBSs Using guidelines: Some organizations, like the DoD, provide guidelines for preparing WBSsThe analogy approach: Review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to your projectThe top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the project and break them downThe bottom-up approach: Start with the detailed tasks and roll them upMind-mapping approach: Write down tasks in a non-linear format and then create the WBS structure
13Basic Principles for Creating WBSs* 1. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.2. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.3. A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it.4. The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed; it should serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical.5. Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in.6. Each WBS item must be documented to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work included and not included in that item.7. The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement.
16Intranet WBS in Tabular Form 1.0 Concept1.1 Evaluate current systems1.2 Define Requirements1.2.1 Define user requirements1.2.2 Define content requirements1.2.3 Define system requirements1.2.4 Define server owner requirements1.3 Define specific functionality1.4 Define risks and risk management approach1.5 Develop project plan1.6 Brief Web development team2.0 Web Site Design3.0 Web Site Development4.0 Roll Out5.0 Support
20Sample Gantt ChartThe WBS is on the left, and each task’s start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale. Early Gantt Charts, first used in 1917, were drawn by hand.
21Sample Network Diagram Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependenciesbetween tasks. The bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on thecritical path take longer than planned, the whole project will slipunless something is done. Network diagrams were first used in 1958 on the Navy Polaris project, before project management software was available.
22Sample Enterprise Project Management Tool In recent years, organizations have been taking advantage of softwareto help manage their projects throughout the enterprise.
23Project Time Management Processes Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. Processes include:Activity definitionActivity sequencingActivity duration estimatingSchedule developmentSchedule control
24Activity DefinitionProject schedules grow out of the basic document that initiate a projectProject charter includes start and end dates and budget informationScope statement and WBS help define what will be doneActivity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic duration estimates
25Activity SequencingInvolves reviewing activities and determining dependenciesMandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work; hard logicDiscretionary dependencies: defined by the project team; soft logicExternal dependencies: involve relationships between project and non-project activitiesYou must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis
26Project Network Diagrams Project network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencingA project network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities
27Sample Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Network Diagram for Project X
28Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Activities are represented by boxesArrows show relationships between activitiesBetter at showing different types of dependencies
31Activity Duration Estimating After defining activities and determining their sequence, the next step in time management is duration estimatingDuration includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed timeEffort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task. Effort does not equal durationPeople doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them
32Schedule DevelopmentSchedule development uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the project and its activitiesUltimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the projectImportant tools and techniques include Gantt charts, PERT analysis, critical path analysis, and critical chain scheduling
33Gantt ChartsGantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar formatSymbols include:A black diamond: milestones or significant events on a project with zero durationThick black bars: summary tasksLighter horizontal bars: tasksArrows: dependencies between tasks
36MilestonesMilestones are significant events on a project that normally have zero durationYou can follow the SMART criteria in developing milestones that are:SpecificMeasurableAssignableRealisticTime-framed
38Critical Path Method (CPM) CPM is a project network analysis technique used to predict total project durationA critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completedThe critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float
39Finding the Critical Path First develop a good project network diagramAdd the durations for all activities on each path through the project network diagramThe longest path is the critical path
40Simple Example of Determining the Critical Path Consider the following project network diagram. Assume all times are in days.a. How many paths are on this network diagram?b. How long is each path?c. Which is the critical path?d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this project?
42More on the Critical Path If one or more activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless corrective action is takenMisconceptions:The critical path is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for time.There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the sameThe critical path can change as the project progresses
43Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs Knowing the critical path helps you make schedule trade-offsFree slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activitiesTotal slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish dateA forward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and finish datesA backward pass determines the late start and finish dates
44Calculating Early and Late Start and Finish Dates
45Project Schedule Table View Showing Free and Total Slack