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3-1 © Prentice Hall, 2004 Chapter 3: Managing the Object-Oriented Information Systems Project Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Joey F. George, Dinesh Batra, Joseph S. Valacich, Jeffrey A. Hoffer
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Chapter Objectives Af ter studying this chapter you should be able to: – Describe the skills required to be an effective project manager. – Describe the unique characteristics of an OOSAD project.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Chapter Objectives (Continued) Af ter studying this chapter you should be able to: – List and describe the skills and activities of a project manager through: Initiation Planning Execution Close-down
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Chapter Objectives (Continued) Af ter studying this chapter you should be able to: – Explain critical path scheduling, Gantt charts, Network diagrams. – Explain how commercial software packages can help with project management tasks.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Activities and Skills of a Project Manager Leadership Management Customer relations Technical problem solving Conflict management Team management Risk and change management
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project management is as much an art as a science
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 The OOSAD System Development Process In OOSAD, the entire SDC repeats itself over several iterations. Each iteration distributes the focus on its own set of SDC phases, but in each iteration all SDC phases are addressed to some extent.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Each iteration involves a workflow, consisting of SDC steps.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 1
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 1 Mgt and Planning
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 1 Analysis
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 1 Design
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 1 Implementation
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 2
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 3
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 4
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC applied to iteration 5
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Moral: don’t over-plan early in the project. Continue planning activities throughout entire project. Plans improve over the course of the project
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 SDC focus changes from iteration to iteration
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Management Tasks and Activities Project Phases – Project Initiation – Project Planning – Project Execution – Project Closedown
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Initiation First phase of project management, involves assessment of project scope, size, and complexity and establishment of project procedures
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Six Project Initiation Activities 1. Establishing the project initiation team 2. Establishing a relationship with the customer 3. Establishing the project initiation plan 4. Establishing management procedures 5. Establishing the project management environment and the project workbook 6. Developing the project charter
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project initiation does not include detailed plans for entire project
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 The Project Workbook An online or hardcopy repository of all project correspondence, inputs, outputs, deliverables, procedures, and standards Used as a primary communications medium for the project team
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 The Project Charter A short, high-level document prepared for internal and external stakeholders to formally announce the establshment of the project and to briefly describe its objectives, key assumptions, and stakeholders
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project workbook grows and evolves during project activities
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Planning Second phase of project management, focusing on defining clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete each activity within a single project
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Ten Project Planning Activities 1. Describing project scope, alternatives, and feasibility 2. Dividing the project into manageable tasks 3. Estimating resources and creating a resource plan 4. Developing a preliminary schedule 5. Developing a communication plan
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Ten Project Planning Activities (cont.) 6. Determining project standards and procedures 7. Identifying and assessing risk 8. Creating a preliminary budget 9. Developing a project scope statement 10. Setting a baseline project plan
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 The Baseline Project Plan (BPP) The major deliverable from the project initiation and planning phases, this document contains estimates of scope, benefits, schedules, costs, risks, and resource requirements BPP is updated throughout project execution and closedown
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Gantt: Focus is on time. Two Project Scheduling Diagrams in Microsoft Project These diagrams are important components of the BPP. Network: Focus is on dependencies.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Cost- benefit analysis is a key componen t of the BPP
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Execution Third phase of project management, involving putting the plans created in the previous phases into action, and monitoring actual progress against the BPP
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Five Project Execution Activities 1. Executing the baseline project plan 2. Monitoring project progress agains the baseline project plan 3. Managing changes to the baseline project plan 4. Maintaining the project workbook 5. Communicating the project status
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Closedown Final phase of the project management process, focusing on bringing the project to an end
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Three Project Closedown Activities 1. Closing down the project 2. Conducting post-project reviews 3. Closing the customer contract
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Project Management Tools Critical path scheduling Network diagrams Gantt diagrams Work breakdown structures (WBS) Software tools
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Critical Path Scheduling A scheduling technique whose order and duration of a sequence of task activities directly affects the completion date of a project Critical path – the shortest time in which a project can be completed Slack time – the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Critical path example Note the durations and precedents (dependencies)
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Determining the Critical Path Calculate the earliest possible completion time for each activity by summing the activity times in the longest path to the activity. This gives total expected project time. Calculate the latest possible completion time for each activity by subtracting the activity times in the path following the activity from the total expected time. This gives slack time for activities. Critical path – contains no activities with slack time
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Network diagram shows dependencies. Network diagram with early and late times calculated and critical path determined
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchy of tasks and subtasks. Note: numbering in WBS does not imply chronological order. It is not necessary for all subtasks in 1 to precede all subtasks in 2.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Planning detail evolves over time.
Chapter © Prentice Hall, 2004 Recap After studying this chapter we learned to: – Describe effective project management skills through all phases of the systems development process. – Describe OOSAD. – Understand critical path scheduling, Gantt charts, and Network diagrams. – Work with commercial project management software products.
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