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Anthropology, Archeology, and History Kaley Klingler.

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1 Anthropology, Archeology, and History Kaley Klingler

2 1 st Submission  William Ellery Channing - liberal religious thought The Brook Farm experiment grew out of the transcendental movement It lasted from 1840 until members were George William Curtis, Charles Anderson Dana, John Sullivan Dwight, Margaret Fuller, and George Ripley new view of history was developed outgrowth of the transcendental philosophy inaugurated by the German Immanuel KantHistory no longer regarded as a gathering of isolated arbitrary facts, but as the study of the progress of mankind National history not be properly considered apart from its relation to the general movement Its contribution was best understood when properly presented in its true connection. The first group of historians is headed by George Bancroft ( ). The progress of his famous work was interrupted by periods of service to the country term as collector of the port of Boston called by President Polk to his cabinet, as secretary of the navy, in founded the Naval Academy at Annapolis. issued orders which helped to secure possession of California in fear of the Mexican American War he was sent as minister to England Returned and devoted his time to the history During the Civil War he was a firm friend of the Union; and after its close, he was sent by President Johnson as minister to Germany, where he remained until His great history was the result of conscientious research, careful consideration of authorities, and enthusiasm for the subject Probably the best part of his work is the last, written after the Civil War and the discussion of questions of reconstruction had shed new light on the fundamental principles of the Union and the Constitution - Perhaps improperly called the "History of the United States," the work tells only the story of the foundation of the nation, but it does point out the sources of its greatness, and sets forth the virtues of democratic government in a vehement, oratorical way, which rather provokes than disarms criticism.

3  William Hickling Prescott ( ) became the famous of our historical writers - selection of romantic themes in which the American people felt an interest, as belonging to the New World first installment of Prescott's life-work appeared in 1837, having cost him more than ten years' assiduous labor - "History of Ferdinand and Isabella," printed at his own expense; romantic nature of the subject gave it a popularity which it has retained to the present day translated into several European languages, and caused the author to be ranked as the foremost of American historians 1843 appeared the "Conquest of Mexico," which had an unparalleled reception, both from the general public and from the highest authorities. It won special praise from Wilhelm von Humboldt, who had visited that country. Four years later the "Conquest of Peru" was published. John Lothrop Motley was late in concentrating his labor on the historical work which was to give him fame, the "Rise of the Dutch Republic." He also wrote the "History of the United Netherlands," and was minister to Austria and England. Francis Parkman - descended from the earliest settlers of Massachusetts, he was born in Boston in 1823, and was educated at Harvard College. He studied law, but he had already determined to devote his life to an adequate presentation of the great conflict between the French and English for the possession of North America Examined the manners and customs of Indians as yet unaffected by contact with the whites 1846, he explored the wilderness towards the Rocky Mountains, and lived for several weeks among the Dakota Indians in that region – he became an invalid for life The immediate results of his observations and experiences were given in his picturesque series of historical writings like "Montcalm and Wolfe” The growing commercial and political importance of New York, its increase of wealth, and the enterprise of its publishers, both of books and periodicals, tended to make it a literary centre before the close of the first half-century. George William Curtis is better known by his "Easy Chair" essays in Harper's Weekly than by his books, graceful though they are. Bayard Taylor wrote much, travelled widely, and translated Faust in the original metres. He was appointed minister to Germany in 1878, and died there soon after. Source:  Famous American historians of the 19th century, ol_IV/famousame_fe.html, retrieved on ol_IV/famousame_fe.html ol_IV/famousame_fe.html

4 People and Vocabulary  Vocabulary:  The Brook Farm experiment: grew out of the transcendental movement and lasted from 1840 until members were George William Curtis, Charles Anderson Dana, John Sullivan Dwight, Margaret Fuller, and George Ripley new view of history was developed  Transcendental philosophy: any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical  Kant: an 18th-century German philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg. Kant was the last influential philosopher of modern Europe in the classic sequence of the theory of knowledge during the Enlightenment philosopherPrussianKönigsberg theory of knowledgeEnlightenmentphilosopherPrussianKönigsberg theory of knowledgeEnlightenment  Naval Academy at Annapolis: The Naval Academy was founded in 1845 by the Secretary of the Navy, George Bancroft, in what is now historic Annapolis, MD  Metres: poetic measure; arrangement of words in regularly measured, patterned, or rhythmic lines or verses  People:  George Bancroft: Wrote History of the United States and established the Naval Academy  Francis Parkman: Studied the culture of the Dakota Indians

5 Multiple Choice  1. When did the Brook Farm experiment occur?  a b  c. 1350d  2. History no longer regarded as a gathering of isolated arbitrary facts, but as the study of…  a. lifeb. religion  c. the progress of mankindd. America  3. The first group of historians was led by…  a. Betsy Rossb. George Bancroft  c. William Hickling Prescottd. Wilhelm von Humboldt  4. Francis Parkman explored the wilderness in…  a. 1846b  c. 1800d  5. The History of Ferdinand and Isabella took Prescott how long to write?  a. 10 yearsb. 1 year  c. 3 daysd. 6 months

6 Multiple Choice  6. What city was the literary center of the United States during the first half of the 19th century?  a. Atlantab. Washington D.C.  c. New Yorkd. Salem  7. Who translated Faust in its original meters?  a. Bayard Taylorb. George Bancroft  c. George Ripleyd. Margaret Fuller  8. Which book was translated into several European languages?  a. The History of Ferdinand and Isabellab. The History of the United Statesc. Easy Chaird. conquest of Mexico  9. Who wrote Easy Chair?  a. Bayard Taylorb. George Ripley  c. Margaret Fullerd. George William Curtis  10. Who founded the Naval Academy?  a. George Ripleyb. George William Curtis  c. George Bushd. George Bancroft

7 Answers  1.A  2. C  3. B  4. A  5. A  6. C  7. A  8. A  9. B  10.D

8 2 nd Submission  Margaret Fuller (May 23, 1810-July 19, 1850  Author, editor, and teacher, Fuller contributed significantly to the American Renaissance in literature and to mid- nineteenth century reform movements  Her major work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, published in 1845, profoundly affected the women's rights movement which had its formal beginning at Seneca Falls, New York, three years later.  Margaret seemed a sponge for many disciplines, including Latin, begun at age six, English grammar, mathematics, history, music and modern languages. Margaret herself thought the price paid for this early and intensive drilling, sometimes late into the night, was sleeplessness and nightmares as a child and a lifetime of poor eyesight and migraine headaches.  In 1833 Timothy Fuller moved his family to a farm in Groton, Massachusetts, where Margaret resented her isolation but set to work on serious writing. She translated a drama of Goethe and published essays in Boston papers and in James Freeman Clarke's journal, the Western Messenger. Her father's sudden death of cholera in the fall of 1835 threw the family into financial crisis. Fuller had to give up the prospect of a European tour with the Farrars and Harriet Martineau. She struggled to take her father's place, protect her mother's interests and see to the education and welfare of the younger children. From that time forward, financial difficulties plagued her life.  In compensation for the lost trip to Europe, Eliza Farrar and Harriet Martineau urged Emerson to befriend Fuller, and Elizabeth Peabody suggested he invite her to Concord. Though she had counted on the experience abroad to prepare her for a literary career, the introduction into the Transcendentalist circle served the purpose. Elizabeth PeabodyElizabeth Peabody  In Elizabeth Peabody's West Street bookshop, she held several series of conversations that attracted women of the city and surrounding area who were intellectuals and social activists. The circle included Unitarians Lidian Emerson, Sarah Bradford Ripley, Abigail Allyn Francis, Lydia Maria Child, Elizabeth Hoar, Eliza Farrar, Mary Channing, Elizabeth, Mary and Sophia Peabody, Sophia Dana Ripley and Lydia (Mrs. Theodore) Parker. Though women might be taught the same subjects as men, they had little opportunity to use their learning. Fuller provided a setting where they could discuss what they knew, free to explore ideas and speak their own thoughts on such topics as classical mythology, education, ethics, the fine arts, and woman. Men were included in one evening series hosted by George and Sophia Ripley, but it was less successful than the women-only sessions. Income from the conversations supported Fuller for five years during which she published her acclaimed translation of Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe and several shorter pieces Sarah Bradford RipleyElizabeth HoarGeorgeSarah Bradford RipleyElizabeth HoarGeorge

9  At Emerson's invitation Fuller had begun attending meetings of the Transcendentalist circle in 1838, and the following year she agreed to serve as editor of the new Transcendentalist journal, the Dial.  When Emerson took over as editor of the Dial, Fuller contributed her groundbreaking essay, "The Great Lawsuit: Man vs. Men and Woman vs. Women," for the July, 1843 issue. She then went with Sarah Freeman Clarke on a tour of the Great Lakes territory, the subject of Summer on the Lakes in 1843, published the following year.  Horace Greeley, publisher of the New York Tribune, noted Fuller's new book and her work with the Dial and invited her to write for his paper. Before taking that post, she enlarged "The Great Lawsuit" to be published in 1845 as Woman in the Nineteenth Century. On finishing it, she described to William Henry Channing "a delightful glow as if I had put a good deal of my true life in it, as if, suppose I went away now, the measure of my foot-print would be left on the earth." Horace Greeley Horace Greeley  On the eve of the 1848 uprisings in Italy, Austria and France, Fuller plunged into the turmoil. No longer the "outsider" she had seemed in New England, she felt at home in Italy, free to express her fullest sense of self. When war broke out, she saw a role for herself "either as actor or historian." To her the revolution meant freedom and human rights for the laboring class and for women. She rededicated herself to Rome, "City of the Soul," and sent vivid eye-witness reports to the Tribune.  May, 1850, the Ossolis sailed for New York on the merchant freighter, Elizabeth. Not long after leaving port, the captain died of smallpox. Baby Angelo caught the disease but recovered during the voyage. The inexperienced mate who took command after the captain's death miscalculated his position and was unaware of an approaching hurricane. During the night before the ship's expected landfall, it struck a sandbar within sight of Fire Island and began to break up. Some crew members managed to reach shore, but the wind and high surf made it impossible to launch a lifeboat. The Ossoli family perished on July 19,  Emerson sent Henry Thoreau to search the wreckage, but no trace was found of their bodies or personal effects, including Fuller's manuscript history of the revolution. The Fuller family erected a monument to Margaret in their plot at Mount Auburn cemetery in Cambridge.  Resources:  Goodwin, Joan; “Margaret Fuller”

10 People and Vocabulary  People:  Margaret Fuller – female historian during the late 1800’s  Henry Thoreau – a naturalist poet who was part of the transcendentalist movement  Vocabulary:  American Renaissance – period between where Americans felt a renewed self-confidence in Greek democracy for the government  “Western Messenger” – James Freeman Clark’s journal that Margaret Fuller wrote to  Unitarians – nontrinitarian Christian philosophy  “Dial” – Transcendentalist journal

11 Multiple Choice  The women’s rights movement started in  a. Seneca Falls, New Yorkb. Atlanta, Georgia  c. Baltimore, Maryland  The “Western Messenger” was published by  a. Margaret Fullerb. James Freeman Clark  c. Henry Thoreau  “Woman in the Nineteenth Century” was published in  a. 1870b  c  The ship that Margaret Fuller disappeared on was called  a. the Elizabethb. U.S.S. Triton  c. Titanic  Fuller became the editor of what transcendentalist journal?  a. “Western Messenger”b. “Dial”  c. “Time”

12 Multiple Choice  Fuller held several women’s only  a. conversationsb. parties  c. elections  Elizabeth Peabody told ____ to befriend Fuller  a. Thoreaub. Emerson  c. James Freeman Clark  What family perished with Fuller?  a. Emersonb. Ossalis  c. Clark  “Summer on the Lakes in 1843” was published in  a. 1843b  c  What year did Fuller begin attending the Transcendentalist circle meetings?  a. 1900b  c. 1838

13 Answers aabbccaabbaabbbbbbccaabbccaabbaabbbbbbcc

14 3 rd Sumission  BANCROFT, George, historian, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, 3 October 1800  son of the Rev. Aaron Bancroft.  graduated at Harvard in 1817, and went to Germany.  At Gottingen, he studied German literature under Benecke; French and Italian literature under Artaud and Bunsen ; Arabic. Hebrew, and Scripture interpretation under Eichhorn ; history under Planck and Heeren; natural history under Blumenbaeh; and the antiquities and literature of Greece and Rome under Dissen, with whom he took a course of Greek philosophy  In 1820 Bancroft was given the degree of Ph. died by the University of Gottingen  selected history as his special branch, having as one of his reasons the desire to see if the observation of Massachusetts’s men in action would not be lead by the inductive method to the establishment of the laws of morality as a science.  Removing to Berlin, he became intimate with Schleiermacher, William yon Humboldt, Savigny, Lappenberg, and Varnhagen yon Ense, and at Jena he made the acquaintance of Goethe. He studied at Heidelberg with the historian Schlosser.  In 1822 he returned to the United States and accepted for one year the office of tutor of Greek in Harvard.  His first publication was a volume of poems (Cambridge, 1823). In the same year, in conjunction with Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell, he opened the Round Hill School at Northampton, Massachusetts. In 1824 published a translation of Heeren's "Politics of Ancient Greece" (Boston), and in 1826 an oration, in which he advocated universal suffrage and the foundation of the state on the power of the whole people.  In 1830, without his knowledge, he was elected to the legislature, but refused to take his seat, and the next year he declined a nomination, though certain to have been elected, for the state senate.  In 1834 he published the first volume of his "History of the United States" (Boston). In 1835 he drafted an address to the people of Massachusetts at the request of the young men's democratic convention, and in the same year he removed to Springfield, Massachusetts, where he resided for three years, and completed the second volume of his history. In 1838 he was appointed by President Van Buren collector of the port of Boston. In 1844 he was nominated by the Democratic Party for governor of Massachusetts, and received a very large vote, though not sufficient for election. After the accession of President Polk, Mr. Bancroft became secretary of the navy, and signalized his administration by the establishment of the naval academy at Annapolis, and other reforms and improvements. This institution was devised and completely set at work by Mr. Bancroft alone, who received for the purpose all the appropriations for which he asked. The third volume had appeared in 1840, and volumes 4 to 10 at intervals from 1852 to In 1876 the work was revised and issued in a centenary edition (6 vols., 12mo, Boston). Volumes 11 and 12 were published first under the title "History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States" (New York, 1882). The last revised edition of the whole work appeared in six volumes (New York, 1884-'85).

15  WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT ( ), American historian, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May Salem, MassachusettsSalem, Massachusetts  On 4th May 1820 he was married to Miss Susan Amory. Prior to his marriage he had made a few experiments in composition, but he now finally decided to devote his life to literature. A review of Byron's Letters on Pope in 1821 constituted his first contribution to the North American Review, to which he continued for many years to send the results of his slighter researches. He next turned to French literature, and to the early English drama and ballad literature. Of the direction and quality of his thought at this time he has left indications in his papers on Essay-Writing (1822) and on French and English Tragedy (1823). PopeFrench literatureearly EnglishPopeFrench literatureearly English  It was not till the 19th of January 1826 that he recorded in the private memoranda begun by him in 1820 his decision "to embrace the gift of the Spanish subject." The choice was certainly a bold one. He could only use the eye which remained to him for brief and intermittent periods, and as travelling affected his sight prejudicially he could not anticipate any personal research amongst unpublished records and historic scenes.  History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella - his first great work. Ferdinand  He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period. On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June Another year, during which his essay on Cervantes appeared, was spent in the final revision of the History for the press. Prescott suddenly found himself elevated to the first rank of contemporary historians. GranadaPoetry English LiteratureGranadaPoetry English Literature  History of the Conquest of Mexico. The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand. On the 6th of December 1843 the Conquest of Mexico was published with a success proportionate to a wide reputation won by his previous work MexicoUnited StatesMexicoUnited States  Resources:   Edited Appletons Encyclopedia,“George Bancroft,”

16 People and Vocabulary  People:  George Bancroft – American historian who wrote “History of the United States”  William Hickling Prescott – American historian who wrote “History of the Conquest of Mexico”  Vocabulary:  Ballad Literature – literary genre of traditional, narrative poetry  North American Review – Oldest literary magazine in the U.S. Founded in Boston in 1815  Abridgement – most commonly used in shortening or condensing a literary work  Antiquities – usually used in the plural to define objects from Antiquity and things from the Mediterranean  History of the United States – covers the discovery of the continent to the Revolutionary war. Written by George Bancroft

17 Multiple Choice  1. Who wrote to the North American Review?  a. George Bancroftb. Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell  c. William Hickling Prescott  2. Antiquities involves objects from  a. Europeb. the Mediterranean  c. the United States  3. The last revised addition of “History of the United States” had how many volumes?  a. 6b. 12  c. 1  4. Who declined a nomination for the Senate?  a. William Hickling Prescottb. George Bancroft  c. President Van Buren  5. Where did Bancroft get his ph. degree?  a. University of Gottingenb. Harvard University  c. Yale

18 Multiple Choice  6. Who translated Heeren’s “Politics of Ancient Greece”?  a. George Bancroftb. Varnhagen  c. Byron  7. Prescott started in which subject?  a. Literatureb. History  c. Politics  8. What year was the 3rd volume of “History of the United States” written?  a. 1825b  c  9. Prescott’s first great work was  a. “History of the United States”b. “Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire”  c. “History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella”  10. The last two volumes of “History of the United States” were published under the name  a. “History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States” b. volumes 11 and 12c. “History of the Conquest of Mexico”

19 Answers  1. c  2. b  3.a  4.b  5.a  6.a  7.a  8.c  9.c  10.a


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