2Introduction to Transcendentalism A religious, philosophical and literary movement, Transcendentalism arose in New England in the middle of the nineteenth century. Began as a religious concept rooted in the ideas of American democracy.
3Time Period Industrialism: A change from hand and home production to machine and factoryGoes against the ideas of transcendentalism and connecting with natureAbolition:-eliminated slavery in the United States-those in charge of the slaves were not working for themselves outside being surrounded by nature
4IndustrialismIndustrialism is an economy based on industry. Whether that is a good or bad economy is dependent on what people make of it. Industrialism can provide much needed jobs or ruin the environment; it can boost a failing economy or take advantage of the needs of people.
5AbolitionThis was an Act to get rid of slave trade on March in the British empireThe purpose of this act was to provide apprenticeship
6Artistic Conditionsstressed the value of rational, order-centered, approaches to art and spirituality as they were expressed in the writings of Locke and Bacon.
7The Influence of the Literature High-mindednessMoral earnestnessThe desire to reform society and educationThe assertion of a philosophy of the individual as superior to tradition and society.
8Difference from other time periods their view of God and God’s role in the lives of people.the belief in the inherent goodness or inherent dark side of human beingsthe style in which their authors wrote.
9Important AuthorsThe most important authors during this time period was Ralph Waldo, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
10Ralph Waldo EmersonWaldo Emerson is truly the center of the American transcendental movement, setting out most of its ideas and values in a little book, Nature, published in 1836represented at least ten years of intense study in philosophy, religion, and literature, and in his First Series of essays.
11Henry David ThoreauA complex man of many talents who worked hard to shape his craft and his lifeBorn In 1817, one of his first memories was of staying awake at night "looking through the stars to see if I could see God behind them.” He never stopped looking into nature for the ultimate Truth.
12Margaret FullerWas born Sarah Margaret Fuller on May 23, 1810 in Cambridge port, Massachusetts.She was a very intelligent, even precocious, child who received an intense education from her father, Timothy Fuller, learning Greek and Latin at a very early age.
13Emily DickinsonEmily Dickinson was born on 10th December, 1830, in the town of Amherst, Massachusetts.Regarded as one of America’s greatest poets, is also well known for her unusual life of self imposed social seclusion.she yet wrote poetry of great power; questioning the nature of immortality and death, with at times an almost mantic quality. Her different lifestyle created an aura; often romanticized.
14Most Important Works by these Authors The Spiritual Emerson- Ralph Waldo EmersonEssays and Poems- Ralph Waldo Emerson
15Political ConditionsWas a reaction against the newly dispassionate and logical world presented by developing industry and reflected by the Enlightenment movement.American side of this movement, and as such it was also the beginning of the American cultural group's rebellion against traditional European standards
16Religious conditionsNineteenth Century American Transcendentalism is not a religion; it is a pragmatic philosophy, a state of mind, and a form of spirituality.It is not a religion because it does not go along with the three concepts common in major religions: a belief in a God, a belief in an afterlife and a belief that this life has consequences on the next.
17Social ConditionsAssociate it with the writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and his friend Henry David Thoreau.Asked to name things about the group they remember, most mention Emerson’s ringing declaration of cultural independence in his “American Scholar” address at Harvard’s commencement.
18Time PeriodThis was the time period during the hippie culture.
19Extra Info on Transcendentalism The earliest was the so-called "Transcendental Club" (1836–1840), an informal group that met to discuss intellectual and religious topics; also important was the "Saturday Club," organized much later (1854).
20Final NoteIt originated among a small group of intellectuals who were reacting against the orthodoxy of Calvinism and the rationalism of the Unitarian Church, developing instead their own faith centering on the divinity of man and nature.Interesting Facts:Its mystical aspects were partly influenced by Indian and Chinese religious teachings.beliefs that God is immanent in man and nature.