Presentation on theme: "Psychology One Fall OLD Hinsdale South H.S."— Presentation transcript:
1Psychology One Fall 2002 - OLD Hinsdale South H.S. Brain & BehaviorPsychology OneFall OLDHinsdale South H.S.
2ANNOUNCEMENTS Keep reading Unit III on Brain pg 94-110 The entire outline through 121Outline Due MONDAYTEST MAKEUPS BY MONDAY!
3WHY STUDY THE BRAIN IN PSYCHOLOGY? WHAT HAPPENS TO CUTLER’S BRAIN WHEN HE IS SACKED?Fact:Men’s brains are not fully developed until age 22 while girls develop sooner. Why?See packet (Men’s vs. Women’s Brains)
8The NeuronWhat is it?Cells of nerve tissues where messages travel to and from the brainWhere are they found?Everywhere in your body! You have millions of them!What type of communication happens here?Electrical Action PotentialChemical
9Terminals or Terminal Buttons Parts of the NeuronNodes of RanvierDendritesAxonMyelin SheathTerminal BranchCell BodyNucleusAxonTerminals or Terminal ButtonsSynapse
10Neuron PartsNucleus -Brain (converts chemical messages to electrical messages)Cell Body -Houses the nucleus, vesicles that carry neurotransmitters to the axon terminal are produced here.Myelin Sheath -Fatty, insulation, which protects the axon and speeds impulses (Glial Cells help repair)Nodes of Ranvier –Breaks in the meylin sheath where depolarization occurs;
11Neuron PartsAxon –Fibers that carries electrical impulses Away from the cell body.Electrical impulses travel down the axon as depolarization happens at each Nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization happens multiple times along the axon.As the action potential moves, vesicles are carried closer to the axon terminal.Dendrites –Fibers that receive neurotransmitters (chemical communicators) from other neuronsAt the cell body, the chemical message is downloaded and is translated into an electrical impulse which then travels down the axon.Receive messages like a Post Office
12Neuron Hand Model Fingers = Dendrites Palm = Cell Body Dot = Nucleus Arm = AxonSkin = Myelin SheathElbow = Terminal Button
13ALONG THE AXON:Action Potential – A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon like a domino effect, one triggers the next. Happens very quickly.Resting Potential – When the axon is waiting to be fired. Sodium on outside and Potassium on the inside. (SALTY BANANA)
14ALONG THE AXON Depolarization- As the AP moves down the axon, this is the process of the positively charged sodium particles to move inside the axon and the negatively charged potassium particles move outside the axon. This occurs at the nodes of ranvier. Refractory Period- After depolarization or the firing of an action potential, the sodium returns to the outside of the axon and the potassium returns to the inside.
17The Synapse Definition: The space between the axon terminal and the next dendrite.Sends chemical messages called, neurotransmitters, to the next neuron.Vesicles are balloon like structures that carry neurotransmitters to the synaptic gap.ActionPotentialAxon TerminalVesiclesSynapseDendriteNeurotransmitterDockingSite
18Things to Remember About a Neuron Firing. 1 Things to Remember About a Neuron Firing! 1. All or none response – a neuron either fires or does not. There is no partial firing Threshold – to get a neuron to fire, there is a threshold of neurotransmitters that must be met in order for a neuron to fire Lock and Key – There are certain receptor sites for specific neurotransmitters.
20Axon B. Dendrites C. Neurotransmitters D. Sodium ions E. Terminal branchesChemical messengers called neurotransmitters enter receptor sites on the dendrites and cell body. This causes the cell membrane to open up and sodium ions to flow in. When there is enough of a positive charge, the neuron reaches threshold, and the first section of the axon opens up and sodium ions flow in. This exchange of sodium ions happens down the length of the axon. When the signal reaches the terminal branches at the end of the axon, neurotransmitters flow out into the empty space called the synapse.The first click will highlight the first blank. Students click in with their answers. The next click will remove the highlighted box to reveal the correct answer below.
21Why do we not have one big neuron running through out our body? Can we slow and speed up our impulses? Give an example.Will your leg or arm itch first and why?
22Basic Reflex - SIM Touch something hot Skin receptors pick it up, sends it to sensory neuron that carries it to the spinal cordThe interneuron in the spinal cord translates it into an action.Motor neuron carries message to finger to move it away from the flame.DOES NOT GO TO BRAIN FIRST!!
24FACTORS that effect Neurotransmitters AGONISTS – mimics a neurotransmitter or stops reuptakeANTAGONISTS – speeds up reuptake or stops production of neurotransmitter.Excitatory – (speeds up or continues communication) agonistInhibitory – (slows down or stops, antagonist
27Review! What is the difference between agonist and antagonist? Neurotransmitters associated with Schizophrenia, Alzheimers, Depression?REUPTAKE, Depolarization, Neuron PartsThalamus, Sensory Cortex, Left hemispherePhineas Gage?Huntington’s Disease?Broca’s and Wernicke’s AreasGeneral Region of PartsQUIZ THURS ON NEURON AND BRAINEC? BRAIN DAMAGE GAME THURS!
28The BrainWhat is the outer most part of the brain called? There are three names for it!
29Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe – (visual cortex located within) The lobes are specific areascontained with in what part?Primary SomatosensoryCortexOccipital Lobe – (visual cortex located within)VisionParietal Lobe –Body SensationsFrontal Lobe –Working memory, PersonalityTemporal Lobe – (auditory cortex located within)HearingParietalPrimary MotorCortexOccipitalFrontalTemporal
30Sensory and Motor Corex Motor Cortex – is located in the Frontal Lobe, Top controls your toes, bottom controls your head. Facial movement control takes up a lot of motor cortex.Sensory Cortex – is located in the Parietal Lobe, controls body sensations such as temperature, pressure and pain.
31Parts of the Brain Cerebellum- CerebralCortexCerebellum-Posture & Balance & Coordination of ThinkingCerebral Cortex –Contains 4 lobes, aka forebrain & cerebrumCorpus Callosum –Divides 2 hemispheresPituitary GlandMaster gland of endocrine systemForebrainCorpus CallosumThalamusHypothalamusPituitaryGlandSpinalCordCerebellumHindbrainMidbrain
32What part of the brain would this rat’s car be hooked up to? While this contraption looks similar to a doggy wheelchair or a pair of prosthetic legs for your favorite pet, it’s actually much more sophisticated. This rat is hooked up to a prototype of a thought-guided robot wheelchair.
33Hemispheres of the Brain LeftVerbal: speaking, understanding language, reading, writingMathematicalAnalytical: analyzing separate pieces that make up a wholeRightNonverbal: simple sentences & wordsSpatial: art, geometry, facial recognitionHolistic: combining parts that make up a whole
34Other Areas Within LOBES Angular Gyrus – In the parietal lobe, involved in a number of processes related to language, mathematics and cognition.Gyrus – Ridges in the brain, more surface area for memory storage.Broca’s Area– Left, Frontal Lobe, Production of SpeechWernicke’s Area – Left, Temporal Lobe, Comprehension of Speech
35The Endocrine System - Hormones Pituitary Gland – Master Gland, HGHThyroid – MetabolismAdrenal gland – Adrenaline / Noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine)Pancreas – InsulinTestes – TestosteroneOvaries – Progesterone and Estrogen
36LIMBIC SYSTEM – controls emotions, contains four parts (midbrain), connected to frontal lobe! (PHINEAS GAGE)Thalamus - The brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem or midbrainHypothalamus- Controls maintenance activities like drinking, eating, sexual arousal. (midbrain)Amygdala = anger and fear (mid brain)Hippocampus = memory creation (mid brain)
37Old brain, most animals have this portion HINDBRAIN / BRAIN STEMOld brain, most animals have this portionMedulla – helps circulate spinal fluid, regulates autonomic functions.Pons – respiratory functions.Reticular formation – arousal.Cerebellum – posture, movement and coordination of thinking.
38Disorders of the Brain: Prosapagnosia = facial blindness Aphasia = interference with speech, what 2 parts? Blind Sight = failure to consciously see change but can subconsciously notice visual change. Huntington’s Disease = decay of brain, late onset Synestheisa = Crossing of Senses – See Colors for Sounds you hear. Taste Words.
39THINGS THAT HELP OUR BRAIN: Plasticity – Rewiring the brain after an injuryNeural Networks – More synaptic connections = Better MemoryLong Term Potentiation – Memory = Quicker and more efficient neural firing.
40WAYS TO STUDY THE BRAINLesions – tiny areas of destructionEEG – measures electrical signals / wavesCT – takes slice images of objectMRI – helps look at soft and hard surfaces like X-rayPET – radioactive injection, brain glows with active parts (red active, blue not active)LOBOTOMYWhich gives the best view of the brain?
41Who is Phineas Gage? Rail Road Worker Accident Survived! Showed us the amazing capabilities of the brain!
42See AP Edition Review Brain PPT For practice questions
43Practice Questions….You are a pathologist in a large Northwestern city. You are conducting an autopsy on an 83-year-old male who was found dead in his home with noobvious cause of death. During the autopsy you discover the individual suffered two strokes. Based on the functional information below provided bythe next-of-kin, where were the two areas that suffered from the cerebral vascular accidents?failure to do certain specific movementsmassive overeatingdisrupted circadian rhythmsincreased susceptibility to stresspoor muscle tonediscontinued secretion of gluccocorticoidsinability to adjust heart rateunrestricted water loss in kidneysloss of control to react to body temperature changesfailure of the respiratory systeminability to do locomotion
44Practice Questions…..At 1:30 am you (a trauma surgeon) are called for emergency surgery on a 17 year old Caucasian female that was shot in the head during a drive-byshooting. After a tedious surgery, the patient remarkably remains alive and doing reasonably well. The bullet traveled completely through the skullleaving a path of destroyed tissue behind it. You have decided to speak with the parents about what noticeable changes will occur in their daughterdue to the destruction of neural tissue. Based on the information below, determine the approximate path the bullet traveled (i.e., what structureswere damaged – keep in mind that it is possible for fragmenting and ricocheting of the bullet resulting in somewhat unlikely combinations of areaseffected).limb apraxiainability to control the muscular movements of the left shoulder, arm, forearm, and handslow, laborious, nonfluent speechinability to sound out words and write them phoneticallypure alexiadifficulty finding appropriate words when speakinginability to use or recall nouns in speech and communicationinability for sensory input to be recognized verballypoor word repetitiondecreased sex drive
45Practice Questions…….Mr. Livingston is a 39 year-old African-American male who has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasinglyalarmed regarding her husband’s health over the past four months. Upon completion of a CT scan, it is determined that Mr. Livingston’s condition isthe result of the presence of two tumors that have developed within his brain. Using the patient history information listed below and theinformation from class and your textbook, determine where these two tumors are probably located.muscle weaknessvastly increased appetite (gained 25 lbs in the last three months)inappropriate body temperature fluctuationsjerky movementsdecreased sexual desirepoor balance when walking and standingincreased frequency of urinationinability to throw objectsinappropriate sleep patterns (seems to fall asleep randomly during day and night)uncontrolled aggressiveness (rather violent, “short fuse”)exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task
46Practice Questions Answers Exercise 1: The two tumors are located in the hypothalamus and the cerebellum.Exercise 2: The damaged structures include: the right (primary motor cortex), the corpus callosum, Broca’s Area (left frontal lobe), and the left temporal gyrus.Exercise 3: The stroke regions were the hypothalamus and the reticular formation.
47Portable Brain Model Limbic System – Emotions, personality Fight or Flight ResponseCerebellum –Body movementSpinal Cord –Receives & sends messagesCerebral Cortex –Left & Right Hemispheres
48Neuron Demonstrations Be sure to take notes on these to better your understanding! Hershey Kiss Student AxonNeurotransmitters are represented by kisses.Dark Kisses = Inhibitory Signal = Slow DownRed Kisses = Excitatory Signal = Speed UpSpray of water = release of neurotransmitters from vessicles.