Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Biological Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 3: Biological Psychology WHS AP PsychologyUnit 3: Biological PsychologyEssential Task 3-5a.Describe the subdivisions and functions of the Central Nervous SystemA. Braini. Brain StemMedulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum, and the Thalamusii. Limbic SystemHypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampusiii. Cerebral Cortex (Left and Right Hemispheres and the corpus callosum)Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, and the Frontal LobePrimary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory CortexWernicke's Area and Broca's AreaB. Spinal CordLogo Green is R=8 G=138 B= Blue is R= 0 G=110 B=184Border Grey is R=74 G=69 B=64
2Biological Psychology Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemBrainBrain ImagingPeripheral Nervous SystemBuilding BlocksGeneticsEvolutionaryEndocrine SystemNeurotransmittersSomaticAutonomicSympatheticParasympatheticBiological PsychologySpinal CordNeuronsSensoryMotorWe are here
4Essential Task 3-5: CNS A. Brain i. Brain Stem OutlineA. Braini. Brain StemMedulla, Pons, Reticular Formation, Cerebellum, and the Thalamusii. Limbic SystemHypothalamus, Amygdala, and the Hippocampusiii. Cerebral Cortex(Left and Right Hemispheres and the corpus callosum)Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, and the Frontal Lobe Primary Motor Cortex and Primary Sensory Cortex Wernicke's Area and Broca's AreaB. Spinal Cord
5The Brain Stem (Automatic Functions) Brain StructurePrimary FunctionSecondary FunctionMedullaRespiration, blood pressure, heart rateVomitingPonsPuts you to sleepReticular FormationAttention, regulates awarenessCerebellumBalance and coordinationThalamusDirects sensory information to the rest of the brain
6Older Brain Structures The Brainstem is the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. It is responsible for automatic survival functions.OBJECTIVE 12| Describe the components of the brainstem and summarize the functions of the brainstem, thalamus and cerebellum.
7Brain Stem The Medulla [muh-DUL-uh] is the base of the brainstem It controls autonomic functions and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord.respirationblood pressureheart ratereflex arcsvomiting
8Brain StemPons and inside that the (Reticular Formation) is a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis... for example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons. It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep.The Reticular Formation controls:AttentionCardiac ReflexesMotor FunctionsRegulates AwarenessRelays Nerve Signals to the Cerebral CortexSleep
9Brain StemThe Medulla [muh-DUL-uh] is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.Reticular Formation is a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
10Brain StemThe Thalamus [THAL-uh-muss] is the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
11CerebellumThe “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
12Limbic System (Emotion Center) Brain StructurePrimary FunctionSecondary FunctionHypothalamusDrives: Hunger, Thirst, SexTemperature controlAmygdalaFight or FlightHippocampusSTM to LTM
13The Limbic SystemThe Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.OBJECTIVE 13| Describe the structures and functions of the limbic system, and explain how one of these structures controls the pituitary gland.
14AmygdalaThe Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger.
15HypothalamusThe Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
16Reward CenterRats cross an electrified grid for self-stimulation when electrodes are placed in the reward (hypothalamus) center (top picture). When the limbic system is manipulated, a rat will navigate fields or climb up a tree (bottom picture).Sanjiv Talwar, SUNY Downstate
18The Cerebral CortexThe intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.OBJECTIVE 14| Define cerebral cortex and explain its importance fro the human brain.
19Structure of the Cortex Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are the frontal lobe (forehead), parietal lobe (top to rear head), occipital lobe (back head) and temporal lobe (side of head).OBJECTIVE 15| Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.
20Functions of the Cortex The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.OBJECTIVE 16| Summarize some of the findings on the functions of the motor cortex and the sensory cortex, and discuss the importance of the association areas.
21Visual FunctionThe functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces.
22Auditory FunctionThe functional MRI scan shows the auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate.
23Association AreasMore intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
24LanguageAphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding).OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the five brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence aloud.
25Specialization & Integration Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words
26Can you make a purple circle with a cross in the middle?
27Fun with your Hemispheres Rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating the opposite foot in the other direction.No problem since controlled by two hemispheresNow, rotate your dominant hand in one direction while at the same time rotating the foot on the same side in the other direction.
28Our brain is divided into two hemispheres. Our Divided BrainOur brain is divided into two hemispheres.The left hemisphere processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and comprehension skills. In the 1960s, it was termed as the dominant brain.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe split-brain research, and explain how it helps us to understand the functions of our left and right hemispheres.
29Hemispheric Specialization Corpus CallosumFibers that connect the two hemispheresAllow close communication between left and right hemisphereEach hemisphere appears to specialize in certain functions(See Worksheet)
31Hemispheric Specialization People with intact brains also show left-right hemispheric differences in mental abilities.A number of brain scan studies show normal individuals engage their right brain when completing a perceptual task and their left brain when carrying out a linguistic task.
32Splitting the BrainA procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.Corpus Callosum
33Split Brain PatientsWith the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot.
35The Spinal CordComplex cable of nerves that connects brain to rest of the bodyCarries motor impulses from the brain to internal organs and musclesCarries sensory information from extremities and internal organs to the brain400,000 people a year in US either partial or complete paralysis.
36The Spinal CordThe spinal cord controls some protective reflex movements without any input from the brain