3The Lower Brain Regulates basic functions such as breathing. Cerebral cortex covers the lower brain like bark. (Cortex means “bark”)
4The BrainstemThe oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.The brainstem is responsible for automatic survival function.Medulla: the base of the brainstem; controls life- support functions like heartbeat, circulation, swallowing and breathing.Reticular Formation: a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling wakefulness and arousal.
6ThalamusThe brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstemIt directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
7The CerebellumThe “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem.It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balanceMemories for knowing how to use your body for things like walking or playing the guitar.
11HypothalamusPart of the lower brain that regulates basic needs and emotions.Needs:Hunger & thirst“Fight of flight” reaction to stressBody temperatureEmotions:PleasureFearRageSexuality
12Amygdula: two almond-shaped neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked to emotion FearAngerAggressionHippocmpus: A neural center located in the limbic system; it helps process new memories for permanent storage.
13The Cerebral CortexThe intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that form the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center.
14Cerebral Cortex The outer most layer of the brain Controls high level mental processes such as thoughtSize: Large bath towelTrillions of computers do not equal our brain power
16Longitudinal FissureThe long crack running all the way from the front to the back of the cerebral cortex, separating the left and right hemispheres.
17Hemispheres One half of the cerebral cortex Each half controls the opposite side of the bodyFissure: a depression marking off an area of the cerebral cortexCorpus Callosum: a large bundle of nerve fibers that transfer information from one half of the cerebral cortex to the otherSeveral million nerve fibers
18The Lobes Major divisions of the cerebral cortex Frontal Lobe: Contains the motor cortex, prefrontal area, and frontal association area.Involved in making plans and judgmentsMotor Cortex: Controls all bodily movements. (Motor functions)Parietal Lobe: Contains the sensory cortex and general association areas used for processing information.Somatosensory Cortex: Registers and provides all sensation.
20Frontal Lobe Functions “see” or be aware of ourselves when we remember things we have done.Coming up with strategies or plans of actionMakes sense of our environment
21Frontal LobePrefrontal Area: part of the frontal lobe that enables us to re-experience personal past eventsFrontal Association Area: part of the frontal lobe that engages in elaborate associations or mental connections.Plays an important part in integrating personality and in forming complex thoughts.
22The LobesOccipital Lobe: Division of the cerebral cortex that interprets visual information. (back of the brain)Temporal Lobe: Division of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and some speech functions.
24Hemispheres and Handiness Dominance: Control either the right or left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is dominate in each individual; hence, one of them is preferred and controls the majority of actions performedSmall fine motor movements
25Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Speech Language Logic WritingRight HemisphereSpatial ReasoningArtMusicEmotionsMathematical reasoning
27LanguageBroca’s Area: a brain area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.Wernicke’s Area: a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.