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Aluminum Extrusions Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21.

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Presentation on theme: "Aluminum Extrusions Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aluminum Extrusions Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

2 Alumnium in Curtain Walls Aluminum is most common in metal curtain wall because it: – Protects against corrosion –Accepts and holds a variety of attractive surface finishes –Can be fabricated into elaborate shapes by extrusion –Is light and strong Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions

3 Extrusion Production The principle of extrusion is easily visualized: –It is like squeezing toothpaste from a tube –The tube extrudes a column of toothpaste in the shape of the orifice which is cylindrical Very intricate aluminum sections can be extruded for variety of purposes including curtain wall components, door frames, window frames, entrances, storefronts, handrails, grillwork, and structural shapes Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions

4 Extrusion Production 1.Hundreds of extrusion dies for many components of curtain walls are organized in racks 2.A heated billet of aluminum is inserted into the cylinder of the extrusion press 3.An extrusion emerges from the die 4.Long extrusions cool on rollers, ready for straightening and cutting Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions

5 Connections of Extruded Shapes 1.Screw ports are extruded cylindrical features that allow a screw to be driven in parallel to the long axis of the extrusion 2.Self-tapping screws are driven through screw ports to fasten an extruded aluminum shear block to a vertical mullion Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions 2 1 2

6 Connections of Extruded Shapes 1.Screw slots allow screws to be driven perpendicular to the long axis of an extrusion 2.Snap-on and snap together features are commonly used in extruded aluminum curtain wall components Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions 2 1

7 Thermal Breaks and Finishes Thermal breaks –They are internal components of insulating material that thermally isolate the aluminum on the interior side from the exterior side –They dramatically reduce heat flow Creating thermal breaks –Cast and debridged thermal break –Inserting Rubber, plastic gaskets or plastic strips Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions

8 Thermal Breaks and Finishes This aluminum glazing extrusion relies on an extruded rubber gasket (1) to act as a conductive separation between the pressure cap and the main body of the extrusion Such thermally improved glazing systems are less expensive than fully thermally broken systems, but also allow greater heat loss Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions 1

9 Thermal Breaks and Finishes Surface finishes –Aluminum does not corrode but forms a tenacious oxide film –Anodizing is a process that produces an integral oxide coating on the aluminum. It can be done in different colors –Organic coatings can also be used such as fluoropolymer coatings, polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and are available in broad spectrum of colors are most expensive but have high service life –Powder coatings are manufactured with thermosetting powders applied electrostatically. –Baked enamel finish consists of spray applied acrylic or polyester polymers and have high gloss –A wide range of surface effects are also possible by mechanical and chemical means Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum Extrusions

10 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum and Glass Framing Systems A clear-anodized storefront system Thermal Breaks and Finishes

11 Aluminum and Glass Framing Systems Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

12 Framing Systems 1.Entrances –These are systems of aluminum framed doors, hardware, aluminum framing and glass typically used in commercial buildings 2.Storefronts –These are based on simplified, lighter framing elements that are less expensive and quicker to assemble than curtain wall –Rather then being hung it is installed between floor slabs or wall openings –They are lighter and mostly used on single storey 3.Curtain wall –They are more high performance and can be used on any number of stories Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Aluminum and Glass Framing Systems 3 2 1

13 Modes of Assembly Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

14 Stick System Principal components are: –Metal mullions –Rectangular panels of glass –Rectangular panels of spandrel All materials are assembled on the building Low shipping bulk and high degree of ability to adjust to unforeseen conditions Assembly on site more labor intensive and impacted by site conditions Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly

15 Unit System Units with glass spandrel and mullion are shipped to site Units need more space for shipping and more protection from damage then stick systems Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly

16 Unit and Mullion System Mullion and units are shipped separately Hybrid between unit and stick systems Seldom used in today’s construction Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly

17 Panel System Made up of homogenous units that are formed from metal sheet Advantages and disadvantages are similar to unit system but its production involves higher tooling costs of a custom made die or mold It is advantageous for buildings that requires large numbers of similar pieces Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly

18 Column-Cover-and- Spandrel-System Emphasizes the structural module of the building rather than creating its own grid on the facade A custom design must be created for each project Special care required in detailing spandrel panel support to ensure that panels do not deflect when loads are applied to spandrel beams of the building frame Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly

19 Outside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly In an outside glazed system the glass must be installed or replaced by workers standing on scaffolding. Outside glazing systems utilize relatively simple set of shapes and are less expensive Kawneer 1600 System – Outside Glazing 1.Vertical mullions 2.Horizontal mullions 3.Shear block 4.Glazing gaskets 5.Pressure plates 6.Snap on cover 7.Molded rubber plug

20 Outside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Manufacturer’s details for Kawneer 1600 – outside glazed system. The details are keyed to location shown on top left

21 Outside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Detail of a vertical mullion 1.Basic extrusion is a rectangular shape that provides a neat appearance on the inside 2.Broken lines indicate a smaller profile availability 3.The extruded plastic thermal break attaches to the mullion with a projecting pine tree spline 4.Glazing gaskets attach to aluminum pieces with projecting splines

22 Outside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Detail of horizontal mullion – closed extrusion top and open-back extrusion bottom 1.Rubber setting blocks are shown beneath the glass 2.Aluminum extrusion added for spandrel glass 3.Weep holes are not shown but drilled horizontally through the top part of pressure plate 4.Weep holes are also drilled vertically through the bottom part of the snap on cover

23 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly An example of a building with outside glazed curtain wall system

24 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly In an inside glazed system workers stand inside the building to install the glass. It is more convenient and economical for tall buildings but requires more elaborate extrusions 1.Vertical mullions 2.Horizontal mullions 3.Shear block 4.Glazing gaskets 5.Pressure plates 6.Snap on cover 7.Bottom half extrusion

25 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Manufacturer’s details for Kawneer 1600 – inside glazed system. The details are keyed to location shown on top left

26 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Detail of a vertical mullion 1.Basic extrusion is a rectangular shape that provides a neat appearance on the inside 2.Broken lines indicate a smaller profile availability 3.Thermal break is an H shaped extrusion of rigid plastic that is crimped securely into grooves 4.Removable glazing gaskets 5.Glazing pockets of different depths to allow for glazing from the inside

27 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Detail of horizontal mullion 1.Bottom half of mullion is off until glass is installed 2.Interior glazing gaskets are installed after the bottom part of the mullion. They are called glazing wedges because of their blunt wedge shape 3.Exterior gaskets have a different shape which are installed before the glass is installed 1 2 3

28 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly Installing glass from inside 1.Setting blocks and exterior side gaskets are installed 2.Glass unit is pushed obliquely into the deep glazing pocket squared away and backed into the shallow pocket 3.Bottom half of mullion is installed (see previous slide #1) 4.Inside gaskets are installed

29 Inside Glazed Curtain Wall System Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Modes of Assembly An example of a building with inside glazed curtain wall system

30 The Rainscreen Principle in Metal-and-Glass Cladding Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

31 Rain Screen Principle During a wind-driven rain gravity and capillary action would be likely to draw some water past the outer gasket If water has leaked in along the vertical edge it will fall by gravity to the bottom where it drains out If water accumulates in the horizontal mullion it is prevented from running out at the ends by plugs shown earlier 1.Its only recourse is to drain through weep holes in the pressure plate and the snap-on cover 2.External gasket serves only as a deterrent seal, essentially a rainscreen 3.Internal gasket serves as an air barrier 4.Hollow spaces are pressure equalization chamber Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Rain Screen Principle in Metal-and-Glass Cladding

32 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Rain Screen Principle in Metal-and-Glass Cladding Rain Screen Principle A sheet metal, rain screen cladding system Behind the metal skin is metal framing for supporting the panels, a drainage space, and a waterproof membrane

33 Expansion Joints in Metal- and-Glass Walls Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

34 Attachment and Joints in Mullion 1.Vertical mullions are attached to the edges of the building’s floor with angle anchor. Oval slots (4) allow for adjustments to accommodate construction tolerances Sections of vertical mullions are spliced with aluminum internal spline shown with dotted lines The spline is screwed to the lower section of mullion with upper section free to slide to accommodate vertical movement Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Expansion Joints in Metal-and-Glass Walls

35 Sloped Glazing Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass

36 Sloped Glazing Water leakage is a big issue and therefore there is an internal drainage system Structural issues need to be considered and laminated or plastic glass is often required Moisture condensation can also be contained by the gutter Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Sloped Glazing Kawneer 1600 S.G. Framed With Aluminum Extrusions Incorporating Internal Gutters

37 MasterFormat Sections For Cladding With Metal and Glass Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 21 Cladding With Metal and Glass


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