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Windows Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Windows and.

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Presentation on theme: "Windows Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Windows and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Windows Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Windows and Doors

2 Window Terminology Window is thought to have originated from wind-eye Windows have changed from open holes in earliest buildings to an intricate sophisticated mechanism with many layers of controls Prime window is a window made to be installed permanently in a building Storm window is removable window added to improve thermal performance Combination window includes operable and fixed portions with screens Replacement windows install in existing openings The top of window frame is called head jamb or simply head, the two verticals are called side jambs or jambs and the bottom portion is called a sill. Casings, stools and aprons provide the finishing Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Window Nomenclature

3 Types of Windows Fixed windows –Least expensive and least likely to leak air or water Hung windows –Maybe single hung or double hung depending on one or two moving sashes –Sashes were hung by counterweights in the past but now use springs Sliding windows –Essentially like a single hung window on the side –Inherently stable operable windows because of tracks –Can be designed in many sizes Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

4 Types of Windows Projected windows –Includes casement, awning, hopper, tilt/turn and inswinging windows –Sashes rotate outwards or inwards from the frames and therefore need structural stiffness when open –Projected windows can be opened to full area unlike windows with sliding sashes Casement windows –Assist in catching passing breezes inducing ventilation –Generally narrow but can be joined to one another or with fixed windows Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

5 Types of Windows Awning windows –Can be broad but not usually tall –Can protect an open window from water during rainstorms –Lend themselves to building block approach when designing window walls Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Awning and Fixed Window Creating a Patterned Wall of Glass

6 Types of Windows Hopper windows –More common in commercial buildings than in residential –Can protect an open window from water during rainstorms Tilt/Turn windows –Have elaborate but concealed hardware that allows window to be operated as either a casement or a hopper Types of windows and airtightness –Projected windows have pliable rubber weatherstripping (unlike brush type) that seals by compression providing good air tightness Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

7 Types of Windows Windows in roofs –Windows in roofs are flashed for watertightness –They may be fixed – skylights –They may be operable – roof windows Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

8 Types of Windows Glass doors –Large glass doors may slide on tracks or swing open on hinges French doors –Open fully and are more welcoming –Not easy to regulate air into the room because it cant be kept partially open –Prone to more air leakage Sliding doors –Can be partially opened to regulate air –Can only open half its area Terrace doors –Half leaf can swing open Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

9 Types of Windows – Larger Buildings Pivoting windows Side-hinged windows Top-hinged inswinging windows Allows for inside washing of exterior glass surface Devices limit amount of opening to reduce damage Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows

10 A commercial horizontal strip window system Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Types of Windows – Larger Buildings

11 Window Frames Wood –Tradition material for housing –Good thermal insulator –Low coefficient of thermal expansion –Consistently strong –Moisture related shrinkage a problem –Requires repainting often and is subject to decay –Wood frame windows can be clad with aluminum or vinyl Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Double Hung Wood Frame Windows Aluminum Clad Wood Framed Window Wood Windows – Double Hung and Triangular

12 Window Frames Aluminum –Strong, easy to form and join –Less vulnerable to moisture damage –Attractive profiles and colors –Durable factory finishes –Require thermal breaks to reduce heat flow –More costly –Mostly common in large buildings Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Details of Commercial Grade Aluminum Framed Windows

13 Window Frames Aluminum Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Aluminum Double Hung and Sliding Window Cutaway Section of Thermal Break

14 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows. Window Frames Commercial grade aluminum windows

15 Window Frames Plastic Becoming more common Do not need painting Provide good thermal resistance Not as stiff or strong as other materials Have high coefficient of thermal expansion PVC is the most common plastic used GFRP – Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Framed produced by pultrusion Strong, stiff and relatively low in thermal expansion More expensive Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Cutaway Sections of Plastic Framed Windows

16 Window Frames Steel –Main advantage is strength which permits sashes to be slender than other materials –Corrosion is a problem so frames would need to be coated or painted –More thermally conductive than wood and plastic but less than aluminum –Muntins –Glass in windows is divided into small sections within each sash by muntins –It was necessary when large sizes of glass were not common but is more decorative now Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Steel Frame Results in Narrow Sight Lines

17 Window Frames Steel Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Hot Rolled Steel Window Frame Sections Cutaway of Steel Framed Window Steel Framed Window with Wired Glass Used in Openings in Fire Separations

18 Window Frames - Comparisons Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Single Hung Aluminum Framed Window Compared to PVC Plastic Framed Window

19 Window Frames - Comparisons Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Coefficients of Thermal Expansion Impact of Window Frame to Overall U Values of Windows

20 Installing Windows Designers need to ensure to provide rough openings or masonry openings for the windows Details need to be considered to flash openings Attachments/Anchoring of windows to the frame need to be taken into account Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Manufacturers Catalog Details Showing Rough Opening & Trim Requirements

21 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Installing Windows Aluminum-clad, wood windows being installed into a rough opening constructed of thin steel sections and plywood

22 Doors Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Windows and Doors

23 Door Categories Exterior doors Weather resistance is an important criteria Solid entrance doors, doors with glass, screen doors, vehicular doors, revolving doors. Most common are swinging doors Interior doors Passage of sound and fire are important criteria Modes of door operations Swinging, bifold, accordian, sliding, overhead, coiling Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Modes of Door Operation

24 Wood Doors Stile-and-rail doors Flush doors Solid core of wood blocks Composite materials Hollow core for interior uses in residential Three performance grades – standard, heavy and extra heavy duty Wood fiber composite material Pressed sheet metal doors GFRP doors Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Typical Configurations for Wood Doors

25 Steel Doors Flush doors with painted sheet steel are the most common type Steel doors come with hollow core for interior and solid core for exterior Steel doors and frames are commonly manufactured and specified according to Steel Door Institutes (standard steel doors) and Hollow Metal Manufacturers Standards (custom steel doors) Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Typical Configurations for Steel Doors

26 Steel Doors - Frames Metal doors and most residential doors are usually hinged on hollow steel door frames Wood and aluminum frames may be used Different types of anchors are available to mount to different frames With masonry they may be filled with cementitious grout to provide sound deadening and more tamper resistant Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Details of Hollow Steel Door Frames

27 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Steel Doors - Frames A steel flush door and hollow metal frame, in a concrete masonry exterior wall

28 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Steel Doors - Frames In the event of a fire, this fire door will automatically close, protecting the elevator lobby beyond The fire test label, required for all fire doors, can be seen affixed to the edge of the door below the uppermost hinge

29 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Doors Custom Fabricated Door Hardware

30 Fenestration Performance Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Windows and Doors

31 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Window Testing Setting up a laboratory test for window structural strength and resistance to wind pressures The metal apparatus is used to measure deflection of the window frame during the test The glass is taped to prevent it from shattering

32 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Window Testing Setting up a laboratory test for window structural strength and resistance to wind pressures The metal apparatus is used to measure deflection of the window frame during the test The glass is taped to prevent it from shattering

33 Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Windows Performance Issues – Impact Resistance Projectile damage to a window wall resulting from hurricane force winds

34 Performance Many other issues that need to be taken into account in choosing fenestration –Fire –Egress –Accessibility –Accidental breakage –Emergency escape –Structural performance –Resistance to wind and rain –Thermal performance –Impact resistance –Blast resistance Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Fenestration Performance Details of Hollow Steel Door Frames

35 MasterFormat Sections For Windows and Doors Fundamentals of Building Construction, Materials & Methods, 5 th Edition Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 18 Doors and Windows


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