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SNCC, Sibley Commission, Hamilton Holmes, Charlayne Hunter, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, Maynard Jackson, Lester Maddox, Andrew.

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Presentation on theme: "SNCC, Sibley Commission, Hamilton Holmes, Charlayne Hunter, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, Maynard Jackson, Lester Maddox, Andrew."— Presentation transcript:

1 SNCC, Sibley Commission, Hamilton Holmes, Charlayne Hunter, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, Maynard Jackson, Lester Maddox, Andrew Young

2  Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee  Early student sit-ins led to this organization  When people enter a public building and refuse to leave until they are served or their demands are met  April 1960  Shaw University  Raleigh, North Carolina

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5 Worked in southern states/helped blacks to register to vote, led protests, sit-ins at lunch counters, & boycotts (of business that wouldn’t serve blacks)  John Lewis of Georgia – 1 st president of SNCC

6  Created to study problem of integration (1960)  Sibley Commission headed by Atlanta attorney & banker John Sibley (14 members)  Held hearings all over Georgia to see how public felt about integration  Georgia’s school systems mostly refused desegregation

7  3 to 2 margin, Georgians said they would rather close schools rather than desegregate  General Assemble voted to cut off state funds to systems that desegregated (1955)  Ernest Vandiver, elected governor (1959) on promise of keeping schools segregated  Commission decided to allow local school systems to decide if they would abide by a probable court order to integrate schools OR if they would close them.  Many private schools opened to avoid issue.

8  Jan 6, 1961  first two black students to attend University of Georgia  were escorted into the school by state patrol officers

9  University alumni/Georgia politicians pleaded with Governor Vandiver to close UGA rather than allow Holmes & Hunter in  Governor instructed president of UGA to allow them in/shocked, angered many Georgians based on his pledge NOT to allow integration  Vandiver admitted he was wrong not to allow for integration, asked legislature to repeal other segregation laws

10  Charlayne Hunter-graduated from Henry W. Grady School of Journalism  Became nationally known newspaper & public television reporter  Hamilton Holmes- Phi Beta Kappa, graduated with honors, became orthopedic surgeon in Atlanta (died 1995)  1 st African America to attend Emory School of Medicine

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12  Started in Albany, Georgia (1960)  Center of civil rights activity  40% were African Americans  Schools segregated  Few African Americans allowed to register to vote

13  Interstate Commerce Commission prohibited segregation in interstate bus & train stations  SNCC & NAACP tested ruling  Sat in “Whites Only” waiting room at Albany’s city bus station  Arrested  Albany Movement started from this

14  Black & white “freedom riders” came to Albany/ were arrested at train station  Next day/ SNCC led march of African American high school student back to train station  Students arrested/jailed  500 people arrested/jailed/out on bond at one time

15  President Kennedy sent civil rights bill to Congress June 19, 1963  Congress slow to act  Result, over 250,000 people of all races, creeds, and nationalities gathered at Washington Monument to demonstrate-August 28,1963  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr “I Have A Dream Speech” t=march+on+washington

16  President Kennedy-segregation moral crisis for country  Sent to Congress strongest civil rights bill in history  Assassinated 11/22/63 before bill became law  Vice President Johnson took over  Most far reaching & important civil rights legislation since Reconstruction

17  The equal protection clause of the 14 th Amendment given greater influence  Made integration of all public facilities legal:  Restaurants, theaters, hotels, public recreational areas, schools, & libraries  Federal government had power to withhold federal funds from schools that refused to integrate  Prohibited discrimination in businesses & labor unions

18  Youngest & first African American mayor of Atlanta  Graduate of Morehouse College  Attorney  “ultimate mayor”  Created “neighborhood planning units” to give local community citizens voice in city politics

19  Tackled police brutality/made changes in police & fire departments and city government  Led development & expansion of MARTA  Expanded Hartsfield International Airport into one of largest, busiest airports in world  Belief that expanding economic opportunities for more people increased prosperity of all people  Led efforts to secure Atlanta as host city of 1996 Olympic Games

20  Supporter of the ARTS  MARTA stations, Hartsfield, City Hall noted for art displays  Restoration of Cyclorama  Died 2003  Hartsfield Jackson International Airport

21  Segregationist  restaurant owner- Pickrick Cafeteria  Governor of Georgia  1967  closed restaurant rather than desegregate it (wielded axe handles against 3 black activists)

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24  Maddox appointed more African Americans to state boards and commissions than ALL prior governors combined.  Named the 1 st black member of the Board of Pardons and Paroles  Reformed state prisons  Integrated Georgia State Patrol  Increased spending on teacher salaries  Established “ People’s Days ”- bi-monthly  Ran for lieutenant governor in 1970, won

25  Pastor  Civil rights activist  Southern Christian Leadership Conference (member & executive director)  U. S. House of Representatives 1972  1st African American since Reconstruction  Twice re-elected

26  Jimmy Carter named Young as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations  Twice elected as mayor of Atlanta  Co-chairman of effort to bring 1996 Olympic Games to Atlanta  Professor at Georgia State University


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