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1.  After WWII, the African Americans returning found little change in attitudes towards blacks. ◊ Separate entrances to doctor and dentist offices ◊

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Presentation on theme: "1.  After WWII, the African Americans returning found little change in attitudes towards blacks. ◊ Separate entrances to doctor and dentist offices ◊"— Presentation transcript:

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2  After WWII, the African Americans returning found little change in attitudes towards blacks. ◊ Separate entrances to doctor and dentist offices ◊ Signs labeling drinking fountains for “whites” and “colored” ◊ Separate entrances to movie theaters and “balcony seating” for African Americans ◊ Lunch counters, restaurants, public schools, libraries, city pools, transportation services, and other facilities still segregated

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4  In 1946, President Truman set up the President’s Committee on Civil Rights to study the problem of discrimination.  In 1948, Truman signed an executive order that outlawed racial segregation in the armed forces.

5  Banned racial discrimination in federally financed housing.

6  In earlier years, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of  In 1896, the Court legalized separate-but-equal doctrine in Plessy v. Ferguson.

7  To end segregation in schools.

8  In 1950, seven-year-old Linda Brown, a black student, tried to enroll in an all-white school in Topeka, Kansas.  Entry was denied.  NAACP helped Brown’s father sue the Topeka Board of Education.

9  Decision = Separate-but-Equal schools were unconstitutional.  Ordered racial integration of schools “with all deliberate speed.”  Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson case.

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11  Citizens and officials alike defied federal orders to integrate In  101 politicians in Congress (99 Democrats and 2 Republicans) issued a document called “The Southern Manifesto,” opposing the findings of the Brown decision.

12  Manifesto signers were from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.  Accused the Supreme Court of “clear abuse of judicial power” and promised to use “all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution and to prevent the use of force in its implementation.”

13  In Georgia, most of the state’s school systems refused desegregation.  In 1955, the General Assembly voted to cut off state funds to any system that integrated its schools.

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16  Elected Governor in 1959  Promised to keep Georgia’s schools segregated

17  One of the most famous cases of integration was the story of the Little Rock Nine, which took place in Little Rock, Arkansas.  Governor Orval Faubus had the National Guard block nine black students from entering Central High in Little Rock because he didn’t want to integrate Little Rock’s schools.  President Eisenhower heard of this and sent Federal Troops to protect the nine black students.

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19  In 1960, the Georgia General Assembly recognized that change was at hand.  Organized a 14 member commission  Headed by Atlanta attorney and banker John Sibley  To study the problem of integration

20  Held hearings all over the state to learn how the public felt about integration.  By a 3-2 margin, Georgians said that they would rather close the schools than integrate them.  The commission recommended that local school systems be allowed to decide if they would abide by a probable court order to integrate public schools or they would close them.

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22  In 1960, federal marshals were required to escort Ruby safely to and from school and to guide her through the mobs of protestors in her New Orleans elementary school.

23  The Supreme Court and federal district courts held their ground.

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25  On January 6, 1961, the University of Georgia allowed its first two black students, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, to be escorted into the school by state patrol officers.

26  Atlanta City Schools allowed 9 black students to enroll in a formerly all-white high school.  During the next 3 years, the courts ordered all systems in the state to integrate schools.

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30  This image of Governor George Wallace blocking the entrance to the University of Alabama is one of the most recognized of all the images from the civil rights period.  On June 11, 1963, Wallace, surrounded by Alabama state troopers, confronted and blocked the African American students from entering the university.  President Kennedy had to federalize the National Guard and send them to the campus to assist with the integration process.  Wallace did eventually step aside and allow the students to register.

31  After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed, the federal government refused federal funds to any system that did not end segregation.  Some chose to take the cut in funding, but integration continued to come about across the state.

32  In 1969, the U.S. Department of Justice sued the Georgia State Board of Education, demanding that the state withhold funds from systems that refused to follow court-ordered desegregation plans.  Communities finally moved to comply with federal laws.  By 1971, all Georgia public schools were integrated.

33  This made Georgia the 1 st state with a sizable African American population to have a statewide integrated school system.

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