Presentation on theme: "CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 9 November 2, 2008 The Anglican Reformation Part II."— Presentation transcript:
CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 9 November 2, 2008 The Anglican Reformation Part II
Apostolic Church Apostolic Fathers Church Councils Church History Ca. 30AD590 AD1517 AD Golden Age of Church Fathers Reformation & Counter Reformation Rationalism, Revivalism, & Denominationalism Revivalism, Missions, & Modernism ? Ancient Church HistoryMedieval Church HistoryModern Church History The Pre-Reformers The First Medieval Pope The Rise of the Holy Roman Empire The Crusades The Papacy in Decline
The Protestant Reformation Common Beliefs 1.Salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ 2.Religious authority is Scripture. 3.Church is the priesthood of believers. LutheranReformed AnglicanAnabaptist Martin Luther 1483-1545 Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531 John Calvin 1509-1564 John Knox 1513-1572 Elizabeth I 1558-1603 Conrad Grebel 1448-1526 Germany SwitzerlandScotlandEngland Northern Europe 1517 1523 1536 1525 1560 1563
The English Reformation Characteristics of the English Reformation Its direct cause was more political than religious Initially, it was more organizational than doctrinal The English church was marked by continual upheaval There is no dominant spiritual figure The nature of the Anglican Reformation gives a better understanding as to the rise of Puritanism. The Anglican & Lutheran Reformation were conservative The Anglican Reformation will have the greatest (widest) effect because extent of the British Empire
Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Direct Cause, Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary” Elizabeth Edward VIThomas Cranmer Catholic Disfavor in Court Protestant influence on boy king
Edward VI 1537-1553 (reigned 1547-1553) Since a boy king, country was ruled by protectors who favored Protestantism Parliament abolished harsh Law of Treason & Heresy Repealed the Six Articles Act Removed all restrictions on printing, reading, & teaching of scriptures Order administration of cup to the laity Images ordered removed from churches Marriage of priests made legal Act of Uniformity – universal use of a book of common prayer in English 42 Articles – doctrinal statement produces by Cranmer and influenced by Knox Dies at age 16 - tuberculosis
Mary Tudor 1516-1558 (reign 1553-1558) Sought to immediately repeal Protestant Reforms Marries Phillip II of Spain Began persecution of Protestants, “Bloody Mary” Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Cranmer Many leading Protestants flee to the Continent & become influenced by continental reformers particularly Calvin in Geneva Mary’s extreme reaction turned the English people from her – Spanish marriage, restoration of the pope, the persecution of English people
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 Cromwell 1653-1658 Charles II 1660-1685 James II 1685-1688 William & Mary 1688-1702 English Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players
Queen Elizabeth The Virgin Queen 1533-1603 Reigned 1558-1603 Protestant – Educated by AB. Thomas Cramner Second Child of Henry VIII Brilliant person & adroit ruler Pragmatic Ruler English people divided religiously
3 English views of the Reformation 1. Break with the Catholic Church okay, but not change in doctrine or practice. (Anglicans) 2. The break with the Catholic Church was not a sufficient reform of the church. (Protestants) 3. Loyal Roman Catholics wanting to return to the Catholic fold (Catholics)
Queen Elizabeth The Virgin Queen 1533-1603 Reigned 1558-1603 Protestant – Educated by AB. Thomas Cramner Third Child of Henry VIII Brilliant person & adroit ruler Pragmatic Ruler English people divided religiously Political and Personal Reasons
The Elizabethan Dilemma Mary Stuart of Scotland, granddaughter of Margaret Tudor sister of Henry VIII, had a valid claim to throne Catholics France & Spain ready to intervene Still many Catholics in country, but Eliz. could not support because of her lineage Protestants Elizabeth personally a protestant Many protestants return from continent after Bloody Mary dies. Many English were not pro-Catholic, but not ardent Protestants Many received a chance at Middle Class because of the demise of the Catholic Church
“Elizabeth was not a Protestant extremist. Her ideal was a church whose practices were uniform, thus uniting the kingdom in common worship, but in which there would also be great latitude for varying opinions. Within the church, there would be no place for either Roman Catholicism or extreme Protestantism. But any moderate form of Protestantism would be acceptable, as long as it participated in the common worship of the Church of England.” Justo Gonzalez
Act of Supremacy 1559 – The only supreme governor of this realm in spiritual and ecclesiastical matters. No Pope, less offensive language. Act of Uniformity – The Prayer Book of Edward VI revised and ordered used. The Forty-two Articles changed to Thirty-nine Articles in 1563. The Elizabethan Settlement The Middle Way The prayer against the Pope dropped. The matter of the bodily presence in the communion left an open question.
The body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee to preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee and feed on Him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving. The Book of Common Prayer
Act of Supremacy 1559 – The only supreme governor of this realm in spiritual and ecclesiastical matters. No Pope, less offensive language. Act of Uniformity – The Prayer Book of Edward VI revised and ordered used. The Forty-two Articles changed to Thirty-nine Articles in 1563. These changes “... clearly aimed at maximum inclusiveness within the limits of uniformity and loyalty.” The Elizabethan Settlement The Middle Way The prayer against the Pope dropped. The matter of the bodily presence in the communion left an open question. The removal of the prohibition to kneel at the Lord’s Supper.
Article VI: Of the Sufficiency of the holy Scriptures for salvation Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the name of the holy Scripture, we do understand those Canonical books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. They are divided (according to command of Queen Elizabeth I) into four sections: Articles 1-8, "The Catholic Faith" Articles 9-18, "Personal Religion“ Articles 19-31, "Corporate Religion“ Articles 32-39, "Miscellaneous." The 39 Articles
Article VII: Of the Old Testament The Old Testament is not contrary to the New: for both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to Mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and Man, being both God and Man. Wherefore there are not to be heard which feign that the old Fathers did look only for transitory promises. Although the Law given from God by Moses, as touching Ceremonies and Rites, do not bind Christian men, nor the Civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be received in any commonwealth; yet, notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience of the Commandments which are called Moral.
Article IX: Of Original or Birth-Sin Original Sin standeth not in the following of Adam, (as the Pelagians do vainly talk), but it is the fault and corruption of the Nature of every man, that naturally is ingendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit; and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated; whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek, phronema sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire, of the flesh, is not subject to the Law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin. Article XI: Of the Justification of Man We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, and not for our own works or deservings: Wherefore, that we are justified by Faith only is a most wholesome Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification.
Article XXII: Of Purgatory The Romish Doctrine concerning Purgatory, Pardons, Worshipping, and Adoration as well of Images as of Reliques, and also invocation of Saints, is a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God.
Philip Schaff best summarized the main characteristics of the Articles as follows: [They] are Catholic in the ecumenical doctrines of the Holy Trinity and the Incarnation, especially drawing upon the Lutheran Augsburg and Wurtemberg Confessions. They are Augustinian in the anthropological and soteriological doctrines of free-will, sin and grace… They are Protestant and evangelical in rejecting the peculiar errors and abuses of Rome….They are Reformed Calvinistic in the two doctrines of Predestination and the Lord’s Supper…[and] they are Erastian in the political sections…. Hence the Articles original historical context is the sixteenth century Protestant Reformation, and not just the English Reformation but the Continental Reformation as well. The Articles taught those doctrines of Scripture and tradition, justification by faith, faith and good works, the Church, and the number of the sacraments, which Luther, Zwingli and Calvin held in common.
J.I. Packer has ably refuted the old saw that the Articles are ambiguous and equivocal. “On the main points of contention with Roman Catholicism they are indeed crystal clear. Scripture is clearly identified as the supreme rule of faith and other essential matters follow: the fact of human depravity; the Biblical understanding of justification (what Luther aptly labeled the doctrine on which the church stands or falls); the doctrine of assurance; the meaning and purpose of the sacraments. On the flip side of the coin, they are also admirably clear in their negative teaching—i.e., their rejection of medieval tenets: purgatory, transubstantiation, denying the cup to the laity, the sacrifice of the mass and several others. What one often forgets is that they are also very clear about what Anabaptist distinctives they repudiate: Pelagianism, deprecating the sacraments, rejecting infant baptism, inattention to the order of the church visible and other matters.”
The Elizabethan Settlement The Results Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth. The Catholic Church planned to recapture England through a Jesuit coup Elizabeth executed 125 disloyal Jesuit priests. Philip of Spain recruited by the Pope to destroy Elizabeth. 1588 – The Spanish Armada defeated, establishing England as champion of European Protestantism. The defeat of the Spanish Armada ended threat of Catholic intervention and left English crown to deal with the threat of Puritanism. It also opened the high seas. Beginning of Current Irish (who remained Catholic) English struggle. An English state church established. Henry VIII’s Tudor nobility formed from the middle class. The Abbots, who lost their lands and position created a vacuum concerning care of the poor. The State stepped in surplanting the church and the beginning gov’t welfare.
The Anglican Reformation brought the Bible to the English people. England will become the champion of Protestantism and become the greatest deterrence to Roman Catholicism’s spread in the Age of Expansion. The Anglican Reformation demonstrates the great danger of a state church. Puritanism’s desire to enforce their view of church polity and theology with the arm of the state is a denial of the gospel method they loved so much. Lessons from the Anglican Reformation