Presentation on theme: "Pathos EMOTIONS. Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics: Anyone can become angry -- that is easy, but to be angry with the right person, to the right degree,"— Presentation transcript:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics: Anyone can become angry -- that is easy, but to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way -- this is not easy
Benjamin Franklin “Anger is never without reason, but seldom a good one.”
Charles Brenner Most emotional states appear to be an amalgam of both pleasant and unpleasant feelings, good and bad memories. But the words we use to describe emotions often fail to capture this complexity.
Anthony Marsella Some languages have no specific term for depression. The less Westernized a culture, the less likely psychological feeling such as guilt are to be included in a description of depression.
Robert Pultcheck Emotion -- A chain Reaction Stimulus Event > Cognition > Feeling > Behavior : Function Threat by Enemy> Danger > Fear > Run : Protection Loss of Parent > Isolation > Sadness > Cry for Help : Reintegration
Robert Pultcheck Categories of adaptive behavior (functions of emotional chain reaction) Protection: Behavior designed to avoid danger or harm. Destruction: Behavior designed to eliminate a barrier to satisfaction of an important need. Incorporation: Behavior that involves accepting a beneficial stimulus from the outside world. Rejection: Behavior designed to expel something harmful. Reproduction: Behavior designed to provide contact with sex for the purpose of perpetuating one's gene pool. Reintegration: Behavior associated with the loss of someone who has provided important nurturance in the past. Orientation: Behavioral reactions to contact with a new, unfamiliar stimulus. Exploration: Behavior designed to bring the organism into contact with many aspects of its environment.
Influences on Emotion Facilitative and Debilitative emotions Display Rules (Influences on Emotional Expression): Culture, Gender, Social Conventions, Social Roles
Albert Ellis. A New Guide to Rational Living. Rational Emotive Therapy. (A) Activating Event > (B) Belief > (C) Consequence Three ways of Thinking (Believing) : Rationally Irrationally Rationalations.
Fallacies The Fallacy of Perfection The Fallacy of Approval The Fallacy of Shoulds The Fallacy of Over generalizations The Fallacy of Causation The Fallacy of Helplessness The Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations
Guidelines for Expressing Emotions Recognize your feelings Choose the best language Share mixed feelings Recognize the difference between feeling and acting Accept responsibility for your feelings Choose the best time and place to express your feelings Express your feelings clearly
W. T. Grant Consortium: Active Ingredients of Prevention Programs EMOTIONAL SKILLS Identifying and labeling feelings Expressing feelings Assessing the intensity of feelings Managing feelings Delaying gratification Controlling impulses Reducing stress Knowing the difference between feelings and actions
W. T. Grant Consortium: Active Ingredients of Prevention Programs COGNITIVE SKILLS Self-talk—conducting an "inner dialogue" as a way to cope with a topic or challenge or reinforce one's own behavior Reading and interpreting social cues—for example, recognizing social influences on behavior and seeing oneself in the perspective of the larger community Using steps for problem-solving and decision-making—for instance, controlling impulses, setting goals, identifying alternative actions, anticipating consequences Understanding the perspective of others Understanding behavioral norms (what is and is not acceptable behavior) A positive attitude toward life Self-awareness—for example, developing realistic expectations about oneself
W. T. Grant Consortium: Active Ingredients of Prevention Programs BEHAVIORAL SKILLS Nonverbal—communicating through eye contact, facial expressiveness, tone of voice, gestures, and so on Verbal—making clear requests, responding effectively to criticism, resisting negative influences, listening to others, helping others, participating in positive peer groups