Presentation on theme: "Emotions, Stress and Human Relations"— Presentation transcript:
1Emotions, Stress and Human Relations Chapter 4Emotions, Stress and Human Relations
2Research on Emotions Ignored emotion, preferred rational thought Amygdala is linked to fear and angerPositive emotions, left hemisphere; negative emotions, right hemisphereBrain chemicals affect emotionsFacial expressions affect emotions
4Irrational BeliefsCatastrophizing – making it worse than it is (Bad omen?)Overgeneralization – Will it always be this way? (always or never)Or just often?The myth of causation.Albert Ellis – ABC modelA=activating event; C=consequent emotion; B=intervening beliefs/thoughtsAre you afraid of hurting someone’s feelings?Letting the pot boil (over).
5Irrational Beliefs The need for approval The tyranny of shoulds Everyone must like meLeads to compromiseCompromise leads to confusion/cognitive dissonanceThe tyranny of shouldsJust world hypothesisIf we try to live right, we should be blessed or rewarded.People get what they deserveBlaming the victim
6Irrational Beliefs Perfectionism Myth of helplessness. I should be able to handle this.Don’t get help.Don’t accept yourself.Myth of helplessness.I can’t do anything about the situation.
8Sadness: Are you depressed? Are you physically tired for no reason?Do you feel worthless?Do you feel hopeless?Have you lost interest in activities?Have you lost interest in people?Have your eating or sleeping habits changed?Can you think clearly? Or do you feel “foggy”?
9What causes sadness & depression? Life events (loss, grief)Depressive realismPessimistic thought patternsPhysical exhaustionDepression is contagiousGuiltUnforgiveness, grudges
10What to do about sadness. Cognitively appraise the problemTreat yourselfExerciseSocializeLaugh, find something funnyDistract, read a good bookAccomplish somethingSmall choreHelp someone elseIf non of these are working, or you can’t make yourself do them, get help.
11AngerAnger is an emotion.Aggression is a behavior.
12Direct Expression of Anger ConstructiveCount to 10Do not ambushChoose your battlesDestructivePhysical aggressionVerbal aggression, e.g., name-callingRelational aggression, e.g., gossip,slander
13Indirect Expression of Anger DestructiveGetting drunk, doing drugsTearing up propertyDisplacementCatharsis (letting off steam) does not work very wellConstructiveExerciseRelaxationPsychological Detachment (The situation, but not your reaction, may be out of your control.)Cognitive restructuring )accentuate the positive)Prayer and meditation
14Express Your Anger Do express your anger. Unexpressed anger does not go away.Over time it will build up and cause trouble.Special cases.Anger with yourself.Anger with God.
15HappinessWhat is it and what factors are related to it?
16Subjective Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with lifeused along with measures of objective well-beingphysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
17Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
18Feel-good, do-good phenomenon Experiencing EmotionFeel-good, do-good phenomenonpeople’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
19Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction Importance scores MoneyLoveLife satisfaction0.60.40.20.0-0.2-0.4Importancescores
20Experiencing Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Relative Deprivation tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” levelbrightness of lightsvolume of soundlevel of incomedefined by our prior experienceRelative Deprivationperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
21Experiencing Emotion However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractiveness
22Other Factors Affecting Happiness Perceived personal controlSet and achieve realistic goalsOptimismGenetics?Left hemisphere, frontal lobeEasy temperament
23How to be happier Keep busy with challenging, but manageable tasks Count your blessingsFind good relationships, social networksLook on the bright sideExercise (regularly)Laugh!