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Chapter 4 Emotions, Stress and Human Relations. Research on Emotions Ignored emotion, preferred rational thought Amygdala is linked to fear and anger.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Emotions, Stress and Human Relations. Research on Emotions Ignored emotion, preferred rational thought Amygdala is linked to fear and anger."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Emotions, Stress and Human Relations

2 Research on Emotions Ignored emotion, preferred rational thought Amygdala is linked to fear and anger Positive emotions, left hemisphere; negative emotions, right hemisphere Brain chemicals affect emotions Facial expressions affect emotions

3 Thoughts Influence Emotions Activating Event Cognitive Appraisal Self-talk

4 Irrational Beliefs Catastrophizing – making it worse than it is (Bad omen?) Overgeneralization – Will it always be this way? (always or never) Or just often? The myth of causation. Albert Ellis – ABC model A=activating event; C=consequent emotion; B=intervening beliefs/thoughts Are you afraid of hurting someone’s feelings? Letting the pot boil (over).

5 Irrational Beliefs The need for approval Everyone must like me Leads to compromise Compromise leads to confusion/cognitive dissonance The tyranny of shoulds Just world hypothesis If we try to live right, we should be blessed or rewarded. People get what they deserve Blaming the victim

6 Irrational Beliefs Perfectionism I should be able to handle this. Don’t get help. Don’t accept yourself. Myth of helplessness. I can’t do anything about the situation.

7 Addressing Irrational Beliefs Self-talk Cognitive therapy

8 Sadness: Are you depressed? Are you physically tired for no reason? Do you feel worthless? Do you feel hopeless? Have you lost interest in activities? Have you lost interest in people? Have your eating or sleeping habits changed? Can you think clearly? Or do you feel “foggy”?

9 What causes sadness & depression? Life events (loss, grief) Depressive realism Pessimistic thought patterns Physical exhaustion Depression is contagious Guilt Unforgiveness, grudges

10 What to do about sadness. Cognitively appraise the problem Treat yourself Exercise Socialize Laugh, find something funny Distract, read a good book Accomplish something Small chore Help someone else If non of these are working, or you can’t make yourself do them, get help.

11 Anger Anger is an emotion. Aggression is a behavior.

12 Direct Expression of Anger Constructive Count to 10 Do not ambush Choose your battles Destructive Physical aggression Verbal aggression, e.g., name-calling Relational aggression, e.g., gossip,slander

13 Indirect Expression of Anger Destructive Getting drunk, doing drugs Tearing up property Displacement Catharsis (letting off steam) does not work very well Constructive Exercise Relaxation Psychological Detachment (The situation, but not your reaction, may be out of your control.) Cognitive restructuring )accentuate the positive) Prayer and meditation

14 Express Your Anger Do express your anger. Unexpressed anger does not go away. Over time it will build up and cause trouble. Special cases. Anger with yourself. Anger with God.

15 Happiness What is it and what factors are related to it?

16 Subjective Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life used along with measures of objective well-being physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life

17 Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4, Percentage very happy Personal income

18 Experiencing Emotion Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

19 Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction Money Love Life satisfaction Importance scores

20 Experiencing Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

21 Experiencing Emotion Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

22 Other Factors Affecting Happiness Perceived personal control Set and achieve realistic goals Optimism Genetics? Left hemisphere, frontal lobe Easy temperament

23 How to be happier Keep busy with challenging, but manageable tasks Count your blessings Find good relationships, social networks Look on the bright side Exercise (regularly) Laugh!


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