MSU Extension Pesticide Education Host Susceptibility F Plant selection F Plant parts F Vigor
Weather Conditions F Humidity F Rainfall F Temperature
Microclimate F Shade F Wind F Salt F Location F Crowding
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Infectious Disease Management F Resistance –Superior species, cultivars, varieties F Avoidance –Appropriate site conditions F Elimination –Sanitation; some fungicides F Protection –Most fungicides
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Although cultural and environmental disorders are most common, “bugs” are perceived as the likely cause of a problem.
Insects of Ornamentals F Capable of wide variety of injury F May go through several life stages F Activity and injury often seasonal F Classified by physical characteristics F Classified by behavior
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Insect Classification by Feeding Behavior F Piercing - sucking F Leaf-chewing F Tent and case-making F Gall-forming F Root-feeding F Boring
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Piercing-sucking Insects F Aphids F Leafhoppers F Plant bugs F Mealybugs F Thrips
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Insect Management F Protection for insects: –Pupal stage –Waxy coating –Galls –Bark –Leaf tissue –Soil
Insect Management- Consider: F Susceptible life stage F Damaging stage F Period of feeding F Weather conditions F Number of generations F Host tolerance F Natural enemies
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Non-Chemical Insect Controls F Improve plant vigor F Encourage natural enemies F Select plants with resistance F Modify the environment
Natural enemies of insects can provide safe, long lasting “control.” Pesticides can upset this balance and increase some problems.
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Insecticides F Avoid problems: –Monitor plants for insects –Protect beneficials –Time for appropriate life stage –Avoid preventative pesticide treatments –Use the least toxic materials
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Mites F Not insects (eight legs) F Rasp leaf cells and suck contents –Causes bronzing F Some form webs or galls F Weather dependent - prefer hot spots F Rapid population build up F Paper test
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Nematodes F Microscopic worms F Commonly attack roots or vascular system F Symptoms: wilting, stunting, dieback F Resistance F Few nematicides F Detection - MSU Lab
MSU Extension Pesticide Education Snails and slugs leave irregular holes in foliage where they feed and slime trails where they’ve traveled.
Snails and Slugs F Soft bodied animals F Weather and site dependent F Slime trail F Not controlled by insecticides F Sanitation and traps
Vertebrates F Cause damage by: –Chewing –Rubbing –Drilling