2 AnthracnoseIt is caused by certain fungi (usually Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium) producing spores in tiny, sunken, saucer-shaped fruiting bodiesSymptoms include sunken spots of various colours in leaves, stems, fruits, or flowers.dogwood anthracnose, was identified in North America. Unlike other forms of anthracnose, it thrives in cool climatesAnthracnose can be avoided by destroying diseased parts, using disease-free seed and disease-resistant varieties, applying fungicides, and controlling insects and mites that spread anthracnose fungi from plant to plant.
3 Apple Scab The infection cycle begins in the springtime 15 genes have been found in apple cultivars that confer resistance against apple scabApple scab is a disease to Malus trees, such as apple trees, caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis.Over the winter, V. inaequalis undergoes sexual reproduction in the leaf litter around the base of the tree.
4 Black SpotDiplocarpon rosae is a fungus that causes the rose disease black spot.Badly affected plants, however, will not show the circular patterning, as they combine to cause a large, black massUpon infection, disease progresses from the lowest leaves upward, causing defoliation and black spots on leavesthe fungus is most active at temperatures from 75 to 90°F.
5 Botrytis a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species its most notable hosts may be wine grapes.The first, grey rot, is the result of consistently wet or humid conditions, and typically results in the loss of the affected bunches. The second, noble rot, occurs when drier conditions follow wetter, and can result in distinctive sweet dessert winesThe fungus is usually referred to by its anamorph (asexual form) name, because the sexual phase is rarely observed.
6 Cankercharacterised by broadly similar symptoms including the appearance of small areas of dead tissue, which grow slowly, often over a period of yearsSome are of only minor consequence, but others are ultimately lethalcaused by a wide range of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses.Canker can be spread by weather and animals
7 Cedar-Apple Rustcan defoliate trees and blemish fruit making them unmarketable.requires two hosts, apple and eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), to complete its life cycle.Before apple can be infected, adequate moisture must be present in a temperature range of 8-24 C (46-75 F) to allow for formation of basidiospores on cedar galls
8 Crown Gall a disease of roots and stems Galls vary considerably in size from 1/4 inch to a foot or more in diameterCrown gall is caused by the bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
9 Fireblightit can destroy an entire orchard in a single growing season.The causal pathogen is Erwinia amylovoraThe disease is believed to be indigenous to North America, from where it spread to most of the rest of the world.insects, birds, rain and wind can transmit the bacterium to susceptible tissue.Injured tissue is also highly susceptible to infectionHailstorms can infect an entire orchard in a few minutes, and growers do not wait until symptoms appear, normally beginning control measures within a few hours
10 Powdery MildewIt is one of the easier diseases to spot, as its symptoms are quite distinctive.Infected plants display white powdery spots on the leaves and stemsThe lower leaves are the most affected, but the mildew can appear on any above-ground part of the plant.Powdery mildew grows well in environments with high humidity and moderate temperatures
11 Root Rot found in both indoor and outdoor plants Usually, this is a result of overwateringit is usually lethal and there is no effective treatment.Plants with root rot should be removed and destroyed.
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