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Trinity Development Research Week 7 th November 2011 Sustainable Groundwater Development Bruce Misstear Environmental Engineering Research Group School.

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Presentation on theme: "Trinity Development Research Week 7 th November 2011 Sustainable Groundwater Development Bruce Misstear Environmental Engineering Research Group School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trinity Development Research Week 7 th November 2011 Sustainable Groundwater Development Bruce Misstear Environmental Engineering Research Group School of Engineering Trinity College Dublin

2 Sustainable Groundwater Development Sustainable groundwater development can be achieved with different types of wells (and springs) For sustainability, abstractions should not exceed long- term recharge of the groundwater resources (aquifers) Groundwater resources affected by changing climate (which affects recharge) Large storage characteristics of many aquifers may help to maintain supplies during droughts

3 (UN World Water Development Report 3, 2009)

4

5 Types of water wells (Misstear et al., 2006)

6 Examples of shallow hand-dug wells from Pakistan, Cameroon and Ethiopia (Photos by Bruce Misstear, Mott MacDonald and David Banks)

7 Borehole construction, Southern Oman (Photo BM)

8 Qanat (Persia) or Falaj (Arabic) (Known as a Dawudi Falaj in Oman) (Diagram from MWR Oman)

9 The aflaj (qanats) of Oman (Photos BM)

10 (Image from Google Earth) Can sometimes follow line of falaj from old spoil heaps

11 Well design: What does the user want?

12 Not this! (Photo Mott MacDonald)

13 Sustainable wells: user requirements Quantity – need to meet design yield Quality – fit for particular purpose Reliability – avoid excessive maintenance Cost – capital and operating costs should be reasonable (but cheapest is seldom best!) Impacts on others – avoid impacts on neighbouring wells or environment

14 Sustainability principles are incorporated into textbook guidance

15 Water is Life, Uganda  Funded by Irish Aid/HEA Programme for Strategic Co-operation  Multi-disciplinary project  Goal of this programme - to build research capacity in Ireland and Africa  Water is Life - 5 year programme – 2008 to 2013  Large numbers of partners – both Southern and Northern, HEIs, MMM Resource Centre, Makondo and NGOs

16 Key aspects Inter/intra institutional Cross disciplinary Research ‘in the field’ Community participation Education and dissemination Aim is to d evelop appropriate activities in the area of water resource sustainability and monitor their effects on community health, gender and poverty through a combination of 8 PhD research projects and community engagement

17 PhD research projects 1. Sourcing & distribution of sustainable groundwater supplies for rural water supply (TCD/DkIT//MUK) 2. Sustainable pump technologies (DkIT/DCU/MUK) 3. Health impact of SODIS using a school-based trial protocol (RCSI/DCU/MUK) 4. Solar disinfection of drinking water (RCSI/DCU/MUK) 5. Water & water management needs: social & health impacts on women & their children (DCU/DkIT/MUK) 6. Adaptation of water management to climate change (NUIM/MUK) 7. The social impact of gendering water resource management (NUIM/MUK) 8. Understanding cooperation & conflict in local water governance (DCU/MUK)

18 PhD student: Sam Kagwisagye Supervisors: Bruce Misstear, Eleanor Jennings, Suzanne Linnane and Albert Rugomayo Sourcing of sustainable groundwater supplies: An assessment of a weathered crystalline rock aquifer system, southwest Uganda (WP1)

19 Specific objectives Monitoring groundwater quality in existing sources Consideration of alternative well designs and locations Assessment of the water balance for a weathered crystalline rock aquifer system Investigation of impacts of changing climate on water resources and on groundwater sources

20 Project field work in Makondo parish, near Masaka, Uganda

21 (Photo Andrew Hughes) Makondo

22 ( Photo BM) Unimproved water source

23 Most shallow wells are in the valley bottoms ( Photo BM)

24 Borehole on high ground with deep water level Water collection mainly by children ( Photo BM)

25 Low yield ( Photo BM)

26 Functionality levels  1 protected spring, 1 functioning – 100%  25 shallow wells, 8 functioning – 32%  10 boreholes,1 functioning – 10%  Overall functionality – 27% 2010 survey findings

27 Broken pump – people revert to unimproved source ( Photo BM)

28 Conceptual model for catchment water balance (Prepared by Sam Kagwisagye)

29 Collection of hydrometric data as part of water balance estimation Raingauge ( Photo BM) Weather station Small borehole for monitoring groundwater levels Vandalised monitoring well (Photos BM)

30 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Questions? ( Photo Sam Kagwisagye)


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