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Building climate change impacts and adaptations into Water Safety Plans for low income communities in African cities Alison Parker, Tom Heath, Keith Weatherhead.

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Presentation on theme: "Building climate change impacts and adaptations into Water Safety Plans for low income communities in African cities Alison Parker, Tom Heath, Keith Weatherhead."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building climate change impacts and adaptations into Water Safety Plans for low income communities in African cities Alison Parker, Tom Heath, Keith Weatherhead

2 “Stronger service providers, better services for all”

3 Introduction Naivasha Lusaka Antananarivo Aim Assess impacts of climate change on water and sanitation Recommend adaptations

4 Reviewing climate change impacts on African urban communities UNDP climate brief National Adaption Programme of Action (required by UNFCCC)

5 Deriving scenarios Worst cases: Increased rainfall and rainfall intensity Decreased rainfall and rainfall intensity

6 Field assessment Understanding current climate vulnerabilities Key stakeholder interviews Community observations Focus group interviews

7 Recommend adaptations

8 Example: Kanyama, Lusaka, Zambia Worst case scenario: Increasing rainfall → Flooding Natural floodplain Unplanned settlement 200m

9 Worst case scenario: Increasing rainfall → Flooding Natural floodplain Unplanned settlement Shallow bedrock Example: Kanyama, Lusaka, Zambia

10 Worst case scenario: Increasing rainfall → Flooding Natural floodplain Unplanned settlement Shallow bedrock Overflowing latrines Adaptations: Clearing and expanding drains Emptying latrines Elevated latrines Example: Kanyama, Lusaka, Zambia

11 Uncertainties in climate change impacts on African urban communities Areas at risk of flooding Areas at risk of water shortages Increased rainfall Decreased rainfall Positive impacts Negative impacts Easy to define from field work Uncertainties in current models

12 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Kanyama, Lusaka

13 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Damage to water kiosks, pipes and houses Kanyama, Lusaka

14 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Damage to water kiosks, pipes and houses Overflowing latrines Increases exposure to pathogens Contaminates unimproved water supplies Kanyama, Lusaka

15 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Damage to water kiosks, pipes and houses Overflowing latrines Increases exposure to pathogens Contaminates unimproved water supplies Increased run off Increases sediment load in intake water Damages infrastructure Karagita, Naivasha

16 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Damage to water kiosks, pipes and houses Overflowing latrines Increases exposure to pathogens Contaminates unimproved water supplies Increased run off Increases sediment load in intake water Damages infrastructure Increased water for irrigation Antananarivo

17 Impact of increased rainfall Flooding Damage to water kiosks, pipes and houses Overflowing latrines Increases exposure to pathogens Contaminates unimproved water supplies Increased run off Increases sediment load in intake water Damages infrastructure Increased water for irrigation Increased potential for rainwater harvesting

18 Impact of decreased rainfall Lower water table Water scarcity for both piped water and unimproved source users Increased demand for piped supplies and lower water pressures Long queues at kiosks Decreased hydroelectricity available for pumping Reduced greywater problems Kanyama, Lusaka

19 Indirect climate change impacts on African urban communities Migration to urban areas Crop failure Reduced employment Reduced ability to pay for water and sanitation Increased food prices Increased water conflict

20 Adaptations to flooding Local operators Community education Hygiene during floods Flood-proof latrine construction (e.g. elevated designs) Kanyama, Lusaka

21 Adaptations to flooding Local operators Community education Hygiene during floods Flood-proof latrine construction (e.g. elevated designs) Sanitary protection of boreholes against floods Kanyama, Lusaka

22 Adaptations to flooding Local operators Community education Hygiene during floods Flood-proof latrine construction (e.g. elevated designs) Sanitary protection of boreholes against floods Chlorination of water supply during floods Chazanga, Lusaka

23 Adaptations to flooding Local operators Community education Hygiene during floods Flood-proof latrine construction (e.g. elevated designs) Sanitary protection of boreholes against floods Chlorination of water supply during floods Water utility NRW reduction Increased water quality monitoring and infrastructure inspection during floods

24 Adaptations to flooding Municipality Improve drainage system CUA, Antananarivo

25 Adaptations to flooding Municipality Improve drainage system Improve solid waste collection Kamere, Naivasha

26 Adaptations to flooding Municipality Improve drainage system Improve solid waste collection Improve sludge collection

27 Adaptations to water shortages Local operators Ensure water supply is affordable Expand kiosk network into unserved areas Investigate alternative supplies Community education about health risks during droughts Mirera, Naivasha

28 Adaptations to water shortages Local operators Ensure water supply is affordable Expand kiosk network into unserved areas Investigate alternative supplies Community education about health risks during droughts Utility Support network expansion Build more storage tanks Chazanga, Lusaka

29 Adaptations to water shortages Local operators Ensure water supply is affordable Expand kiosk network into unserved areas Investigate alternative supplies Community education about health risks during droughts Utility Support network expansion Build more storage tanks Municipality Engage in water allocation dialogues

30 Climate change awareness Community Local operators Water Utility Municipality Consultants Government NGOs Academics

31 Climate change adaptation in action Climate change plans Community Local operators Water Utility Government Consultants Municipality NGOs Academics

32 Climate change impacts on African urban communities: conclusions Flooding > water shortages 8 / 11 communities4 / 11 communities Adaptations: accelerate existing water management improvements, not new actions


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