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Background, Times of Crisis, and Current Events

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1 Background, Times of Crisis, and Current Events
The Middle East Background, Times of Crisis, and Current Events

2 Middle East: Questions, Questions
What three major religions were established in this region? Why is there so much conflict in this region? Why is terrorism prominent in the region? What is the United States doing there? Why can it be dangerous if Iran builds nuclear weapons?

3 Three Religions Judaism – Jewish
Christianity – Followers of Jesus Christ – related to Judaism – same God but believing Jesus Christ was God’s Son Islam – Muslims believe that they follow the same God as Jews and Christians but that those two faiths misunderstand the holy scriptures

4 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Similarities and Differences
One God Following basic, principles for living – respecting God and others Strict Jews and Muslims adhere to similar dietary laws Muslims respect Abraham (father of the Jews and Muslims), Moses (Ten Commandments, bringer of God’s law), and Jesus (He was a great teacher).

5 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Similarities and Differences
God comes first in life then relations with others (family, friends, neighbors) Daily prayer and relationship with God Jews and Muslims follow similar dietary laws – ex. No pork Jews, Christians, and Muslims believe that women and men should be chaste until marriage and to honor marriage Christians and Muslims believe in heaven, hell, and a Last Judgment of souls

6 Jerusalem: Holy Place for Three Religions
Judaism – capital of ancient Israel, site of Solomon’s Temple Christianity – site of Jesus’ crucifixion, burial, and resurrection Islam – site where Muhammad, the Prophet, met Allah

7 Judaism: Basics Worshipping one God – Yahweh, Jehovah
Following Ten Commandments – no other gods, no making idols, respecting the Sabbath, positive treatment of neighbors (no murder, stealing, adultery, coveting) Following the Law of Moses – certain restrictions on living, celebrating key holidays ex. Passover Importance of their Holy Land, the place that God gave to them. Holy book – Torah (for Christians – the Old Testament) Hebrew – language of Jews

8 Christianity: Basics Respect for Jews – Old Testament, Jesus was a Jew
Jesus was Son of God (Jews and Muslims do NOT believe this), born to Virgin Mary, conceived by Holy Spirit Became full-time minister at 30, taught about God and heaven, how to treat people, final judgment, and performed miracles and healed people. Crucified by Romans, resurrected from the dead on the third day (Easter) – Jews and Muslims do not believe this Holy book – the Holy Bible (Old and New Testaments in one book. Old=before Jesus came to Earth, New=when Jesus came to Earth)

9 Islam: Basics Founded in 600s by Muhammad, The Prophet
Allah (God) spoke through the Angel Gabriel, who visited Muhammad several times explaining the will of Allah Muhammad made Mecca the capital of his Islamic kingdom – holy site – the Kaaba Jews and Christians were brothers who misunderstood the true God and needed to be corrected Islam expanded through the Middle East and North Africa even into Spain


11 The Great Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

12 Visiting the Kaaba (built by Abraham and Ishmael) in Mecca

13 Islam: Basics continued
Holy book – Koran – visions given to the Prophet Muhammad Most blessed version written in Arabic Five Pillars of Islam – like Ten Commandments for Jews and Christians Daily profession of faith – One God Allah and His Prophet Muhammad Prayer five times a day Giving alms to the poor Fasting during Ramadan (holy month, changes from year to year) Pilgrimage to Mecca

14 Zionism, Middle East, Jews, and Arabs
How were Jews persecuted in Medieval and Early Modern Europe? What was the effect of the Dreyfus Affair? Sykes-Picot Agreement Balfour Declaration Kibbutz/kibbutzim What do you think?

15 Jews and Persecution Most Jews left Palestine – the area where Israel is – after major problems with the Roman Empire in the first century Spread throughout Europe, Africa, Asia Heavily persecuted in Europe Attacked during Crusades (1195 – 1270) Blamed for Black Plague in 1347 Targeted by Catholics in Spain 1492 Lived in ghettoes in Renaissance Italian cities

16 Persecution of Jews in Russia
May Laws – czarist regime restricted Russian areas in which Jews could live; low quotas for admitting Jews to universities and professions Russian Jews formed Zionist clubs – Chovevi Tzion (Lovers of Zion); BILU (Beit Ya’cov Ichu vnelcha – To the house of Jacob go and we will follow) Russian pogroms in early 1900s

17 Zionism Movement to regain a Jewish homeland in Palestine; Zion name for hill of Jerusalem on which city of David built Early 19th century, most rabbis did not believe this could happen until return of Messiah Later 19th century, change of view in some rabbis Olim (ascenders) – Jewish immigrants to Palestine First aliya (going up) – First significant Jewish immigration to Palestine

18 Zionism and Zionists Zionists – Jewish who wanted to reestablish Israel in Palestine Lived all over the world, put their resources toward pressuring for this Palestine ruled by Ottoman Turks until WWI During World War I, Lord Balfour made a promise to establish a homeland for Jews in Palestine (in exchange for Zionist support for the war effort)

19 Zionists and Kibbutzim
Zionists began to move back in small groups and formed communities in Palestine Permission granted by Ottoman Turks, rulers of Palestine Formed kibbutzim (collective farming communities – close to true communism!) Kibbutzim still exist. You may meet an Israeli some day who lived on a kibbutz!

20 Theodor Herzl Renowned Austrian-Jewish writer
1896 – Der Judenstaat (The Jew’s State) Spread Zionism to wider audience First International Zionist Congress Resolution – Promote colonization of Palestine by Jewish farm and industrial workers Organizing and uniting all Jews by means of suitable local and international institutions in compliance with the laws of other nations Strengthening and encouraging of Jewish national sentiment and awareness Introducing moves towards receiving governmental approval where needed for the realization of Zionist goals

21 Second Aliya Herzl toured, lectured, and wrote more books promoting Zionism Widespread appeal; died in 1904 but Zionism lived Second Aliya – 1905 – 1914 Building up institutions in their communities – schools, newspapers, theaters, sport clubs, trade unions, worker-owned factories

22 What was the Sykes Picot Agreement?
What nations were a part of the agreement? What did elements of this agreement say about the parties involved?

23 Early Jewish Settlers 20,000 Jewish settlers in Palestine; 570,000 local Arabic-speaking inhabitants Jews were less than 10 percent Bought land and farmed it Palestine was ruled by Ottoman Empire, corrupt, inefficient, and suspicious of Zionists

24 The Dreyfus Affair (1894 – 1906) French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew, accused and convicted of treason 1894; accused of giving military secrets to the German embassy in Paris. Sent to notorious prison colony Devil’s Island in French Guiana. 1896 – New evidence – real culprit French Army Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy High ranking military officials suppressed new evidence; Esterhazy was acquitted Furthermore, French counter-intelligence officer Hubert-Joseph Henry provided false documents to re-confirm Dreyfus conviction

25 Alfred Dreyfus Stripped of Rank (1896)

26 Dreyfus Affair continued
News of the cover-up began to spread due to editorials in a Parisian newspaper French people were divided – Dreyfusards vs. anti-Dreyfusards, who were spurred by anti-Semitism 1899 – Dreyfus brought back for new trial; exonerated and reinstated in as a major in 1906; served in WWI and reached rank of Lieutenant Colonel What did the Dreyfus Affair demonstrate?

27 Why Palestine/Israel? In the 19th century, British government offered Zionists to settle in Kenya’s White Highlands (inaccurately known as the Uganda scheme). Zionism without the Zion – refused Wanted to be back in the ancient heartland of Judaism

28 Palestine Site of ancient nation of Israel
Conquered by ancient Romans – called Judea Jews left 1st – 2nd century Neighboring peoples moved in – referred to as Palestinians Spread of Islam and importance of Jerusalem made Palestine very important

29 Arch of Titus Romans celebrated their conquest of Jerusalem.


31 Key Questions: Britain, Palestine, and Zionism
How did Britain fail in dealing with Palestine and Zionism from World War I through World War II? How did Britain fail in handling Palestine and Zionism? What impact did Britain’s failure have on the future of Palestine?

32 World War I and Zionism Members of both the Allies and the Central Powers sought Jewish support for the war. Zionists found it easier to side with the Central Powers (many politically-interested Jews lived in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire. Germany wanted to support Zionism more but their ally the Ottomans disliked Zionism. Britain, who did not have as large of a Jewish population, took the lead in courting Zionists with Balfour Declaration.

33 Balfour Declaration Issued by Lord Arthur Balfour, British foreign secretary to Lord Rothschild, a prominent British Zionist. Declaration said that Britain would work toward helping create a Jewish homeland in Palestine but not at the expense of the rights of non-Jews (Muslims, Christians) in Palestine.

34 Balfour Declaration His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country

35 Palestine --- British Mandate: Difficulty
Britain was put in charge of Palestine after WWI (temporary military occupation) It had to fulfill its promise to Zionists and manage the migration of willing Jews to Palestine Britain knew how to deal with Arabs better (Egypt and Sudan); most olim (Jewish immigrants) were Eastern European (Brits unfamiliar with them) Britain was afraid to incite neighboring peoples in Middle East and Muslims in India (major Brit colony)

36 Palestinian and Zionist Resentment
April 1920, Palestinians revolted by attacking Jewish communities Zionists accused British of encouraging it by punishing rebels too lightly and protecting the settlers too little

37 Palestinian Mandate Britain went in two different directions
Back in Britain and in the international arena, it affiliated itself more with the Zionists In Palestine, Brit officials favored Arabs influenced by a concern over Muslim public opinion League of Nations gave Palestine to Britain as a mandate; responsibility to encourage Jews to settle there, help create the Jewish national “home” (refused to use the term “state”), and set up a Jewish agency to assist Brit authorities in developing the national home

38 Palestine different from Syria and Iraq Mandates
Syria and Iraq Mandates were promised that they would be set up to achieve their independence Palestine, which had a majority Arab population, was going to be used for a Jewish home – a Western colonial entity Arabs felt like they were going to be held in colonial bondage by British until Jews had a majority and could est. a state

39 British Policies toward Palestinian Mandate
Set up quotas restricting Jewish immigration based on Palestine’s “absorbative capacity” Not a problem in 1920s (quotas were larger than number of olim); problem when Hitler came to power Britain gave 2/3 of Palestine east of the Jordan River to King Abdallah as the Emirate of Transjordan

40 Jewish Discontent in Palestine
Most Jewish leaders continued to work with British. REVISIONISTS – angry Jewish group in Palestine that advocated creating a state that would include both Palestine and Transjordan (in other words, taking back what Britain gave away to King Abdallah) cleansed of any Arabs who would oppose it. Revisionist ideas influenced Benjamin Netanyahu and Ariel Sharon.

41 Jewish Governor Sir Herbert Samuel – Zionist who tried to be fair to all sides; appointed prominent Arab to be chief Muslim legal officer in Jerusalem. This guy undermined the collaborative process; appointed more extreme Palestinian Arabs to key posts – Palestinian Arab nationalism (Britain would try to deport him later)

42 Possible to Keep Working Together
Jewish immigration decreased between 1926 – 1928 (difficult life in Palestine) Complimentary relationship between Jews and Arabs – Jewish technical expertise and Arab know-how of land; Jewish capital and Arab labor. Some Jews advocated friendly relations with Arabs. Some Arabs quietly welcomed Jewish immigration and investment.

43 Wailing Wall Incident and Effects
1929 Wailing Wall incident damaged relations British did not address it adequately (court of inquiry sided with Arabs; blamed Jews for purchasing too much land – making Arabs homeless); tightened quotas Clashes between Arabs and Jews in streets Arabs attacked areas with significant Jewish minorities (massacre at Hebron) Zionists pressured Britain, which issued a white paper reversing its findings on the causes of clash – showed how Britain was susceptible to Zionist political pressure

44 Britain’s Indecisiveness
When British Colonial Office took over Palestine from the army, it should have devised a clearer and fairer policy toward both Jews and Arabs. It did not.

45 Palestine After World War I through World War II (1919 – 1946)
Became a British protectorate British attempted to maintain peace between Palestinians and Zionists who returned Britain controlled Jewish immigration to Palestine (keeping peace in area) Leading to Holocaust, many more Jews began returning (saw that Hitler was an evil man during 1930s). Britain capped immigration to satisfy Palestinian Muslims, trapping European Jews to meet their fate.

46 Holocaust Jews were targeted by Nazis – 6 million dead
During and after WWII, Poles, Russians, and other Eastern Europeans blamed Jews for the problems they experienced – continued to persecute them

47 After World War II and the Holocaust
World sympathy for Jews, greater support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine Many Jews from all over the world return to the Holy Land – UN creates plan for a Jewish state and a Palestinian state – rejected by Palestinians 1947 – Britain turned Palestine over to UN and leave in 1948 Jews proclaim the State of Israel in 1948 United States is the first nation to recognize the existence of Israel before the United Nations. Wars with neighboring Islamic nations begin immediately Some nations vow to never rest until Israel is destroyed

48 Palestinians They lived and spread in the area after the Jews left
Converted to Islam in the 600s Palestine became theirs from 2nd century into the 20th century. What happens to them as a result of the returning Jews?

49 Two Peoples Claim the Same Land
Jews and Muslims feel entitled to Palestine “On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, ‘To your descendants I give this land…” --- Genesis 15:18 “He (Allah) has chosen you and has placed no hardship on you in practicing your religions – the religion of your father Abraham.” --- Koran 22:78

50 Israeli Soldier and Palestinian Arabs

51 Israel, Wars with Neighbors and Occupied Territories
Wars in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973 1967 – Israel launches attack, takes control of areas controlled by Jordan and Egypt since 1948 – West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip. Also took control of Sinai Peninsula from Egypt and Golan Heights from Syria. 1973 – Egypt and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur, one of the holiest days of the Jewish year. Fail to regain lost lands, which Palestinians called occupied territories. Israel’s government helps Israelis to build settlements in the occupied territories. This angers Palestinians.


53 Key Terms 1948 War for Independence IDF Abdel Nasser
Suez Affair 1956 (aka Suez Crisis) Negev Desert Gulf of Aqba Eilat Tiran Straits Golan Heights

54 1948 War for Independence May Israel proclaims independence; gets invaded by armies from Egypt, Transjordan, several other nations Israeli Defense Force (IDF) grew to 100,000 men, women, and children – brought together Israeli terrorist organizations, militias Arab militaries underestimated (a force of less than 80 Israeli men, women, teens held up an Egyptian brigade headed for Tel Aviv for six days) than overestimated the powers of the IDF – low morale

55 1948 War for Independence UN intervened. There were periods of cease-fire then more fighting. IDF drove Syrian forces out into Lebanon Israeli forces attacked Arab positions around Hebron and Bethlehem Israeli forces pushed Egyptian and Arab Legion forces out of Gaza and into southern Negev; then Arab Legion lost control of the Negev

56 1948 War Aftermath Israel made peace agreement with Egypt
Delegations did not meet face to face in Rhodes conference Agreement arranged by Ralph Bunche from US – UN negotiator Israel gained access to Gulf of Aqba (cut off direct land route from Egypt to Transjordan); signed armistice with Lebanon (March 1949), Syria (July 1949); Iraq never signed armistice and opposed peace with Israel 725,000 Palestinian Arabs became refugees – arguments between Zionists and Arabs over why this occurred


58 Israel’s Situation in 1950s
All road and rail connections between Israel and neighbors cut Planes going to and from Israel could not fly over Arab nations Arab states refused to trade with Israel and boycotted any products of foreign firms doing business there Ships carrying goods to Israel could not use Suez Canal or enter Arab ports Egypt blockaded Gulf of Aqba hurting growth at Eilat (port city) Raids by displaced Palestinians against Jewish settlements (violence perpetrated by both sides)

59 The Suez Affair 1956 Egypt had been running the Suez Canal
Israel invaded and took over the Sinai Peninsula British and French paratroopers took over Port Said and gained control of northern part of the Suez Canal US and Soviet Union condemned the attack which Egyptians called “tripartite aggression” (Brit, France, Israel) Israel withdrew from Sinai after US pressure; Egypt promised to lift blockade of Gulf of Aqba UN troops sent in to keep peace around Suez Canal and Tiran Straits (Gulf of Aqba to Red Sea) Lasted until May 1967


61 The June 1967 War: Prelude Syria had been firing on Jewish settlements in Golan Heights; air fight between Syrian MiG fighters and Israeli jets, six planes shot down Egypt’s President Abdel Nasser asked UN to remove troops(UN Secretary General withdrew them without consulting Security Council) Nasser sent military units into key points in Gaza and Sinai (Sharm al-Shaykh – Tiran Straits); resumed blockade of Gulf of Aqba King Husayn of Jordan made agreement with Nasser on joint military command in May 1967 What message does this send to Israel?


63 June 1967 War (aka Six Day War)
Israel called up its reserves doubling size of its armies Political parties put differences aside and join up to form an emergency cabinet Israel launched preemptive air strike against Egyptian, Jordanian, and Syrian air bases to completely wipe out their war-making capacity Israeli troops moved into Sinai and occupied it (Arabs accused IDF of dropping napalm on Jordanian troops; using scare tactics against Palestinian refugee camps and West Bank villages); 200,000 Palestinian refugees

64 June 1967 War – Six Day War Match up – Arabs had 2,700 tanks vs. Israel’s 800; Arabs 800 fighter planes vs. Israel’s 190; Arabs 217 ships vs. Israel’s 37 Why did Israel win? It attacked first. Wiped out Egyptian air force before it could get off the ground Unity (politically, militarily) vs. Arabs who were suspicious of each other and divided by rivalries NY Times reported Israel had more troops on the field, deployed better firepower, and used greater mobility in battle Egyptian military bogged down in Yemen civil war

65 Six Day War Aftermath By June , Israel expanded 3X what it was six days before.


67 What happened as soon as Israel proclaimed its statehood
What happened as soon as Israel proclaimed its statehood? What were the results? What were some of the difficulties that Israel had to deal with regarding its neighbors? What was the Suez Affair? When did it happen? What happened during the Six-Day War (June 1967 War)? Which group really seemed to be the victims in all of this?

68 IDF Soldiers – First Israelis to come back to the Western Wall

69 Arab-Israeli Conflict
First and Second Intifada – Palestinian resistance to Israel; protests, guerilla warfare, terrorism Oslo I Accords (1993) – “Declaration of Principles” – Israel to remove troops from Gaza and Jericho so Palestinians could set up government Israel controls Jerusalem and Golan Heights; Palestinian Authority controls West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israel maintains blockade of Gaza. Why? Muslims have access to East Jerusalem (Temple Mount) but do not control it.

70 Oslo Accord I (1993) – A Historic Handshake
Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) President Clinton Yasser Arafat (Palestin.)

71 Review What are three similarities among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? How are they different? What was the Balfour Declaration? How did it affect Middle East relations? Zionism Kibbutz Palestine and Palestinians

72 OPEC Members Founded in Baghdad, Iraq in 1960 12 members
Middle Eastern – Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates South American – Venezuela, Ecuador African – Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Algeria

73 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Group of 12 nations (6 of whom are Middle Eastern) that regulates the supply and price of oil among its member nations OPEC’s objective is to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry (

74 Suspended membership in 2009.

75 OPEC What is the purpose of OPEC?
Why do you think the Member Nations felt it necessary to unite? Consider the role that Western powers had played in the history of the Middle East. Why does OPEC have power over industrialized nations?

76 Iraq Ruled by Ottoman Empire until after World War I
Became a British protectorate Mixed population 80% Arab 15% Kurdish 5% Other groups (Assyrian, Turkish) Islamic but mixed Sunni Muslims - ~ 35% Shi’ite Muslims - ~ 60% Other ~ 5%

77 Iraq: Background British protectorate 1919 – British managed disputes among the different groups Western powers (UK, US, France) played major role in Iraqi history due to OIL 1931 – Independence but with pro-British government World War II – despite pro-Axis movement, Iraq stayed connected to the Allies

78 Iraq – Rise of Saddam Hussein
Several different political leaders during 1950s and 1960s Overthrowing each other with help of the US Central Intelligence Agency, whoever the US thought would be most against Soviet Union and favorable to US oil interests (usually the leaders were dictators US helped a leader of the Baath Party come to power – Saddam Hussein

79 Saddam Hussein Becomes Leader
1979 – Saddam become prime minister of Iraq Consolidates power, becomes dictator Places family members and friends from his hometown (Tikrit) in high government positions



82 Iran-Iraq War

83 Iran – Iraq War 1980-1988 Several border disputes over the years
Iran took control of some Iraqi border territories and the Shattab-al-Arab waterway – Iraq’s only access to sea, and supported a Kurdish revolt Iran and Iraq reached a settlement, Iran ceased to support Kurdish revolt BUT did not return some lands Saddam invaded Iran while it was having a religious – political revolution War for 8 years – 1st Iraq invaded Iran, then Iran invaded Iraq 1 million casualties – stopped fighting when both sides grew tired Both sides used chemical weapons against each other

84 Iraq’s only access to Persian Gulf


86 Iranian militia woman What might this suggest about the fighting during the Iran-Iraq War?

87 Saddam Hussein and the Kurds
Kurds - different ethnic group than the Arabs of Iraq Nationalistic – sought their own country Saddam used chemical weapons against the Kurds - genocide Killed 182,000 Kurds Created 400,000 Kurdish refugees After US forces capture Saddam in 2003, he is given a public trial for war crimes and sentenced to death. New Iraqi government executes Saddam by hanging in 2006.

88 The Kurds What part of Iraq due the Kurds occupy?

89 Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein ordered an invasion of Kuwait.

90 Persian Gulf

91 Iraq Invasion of Kuwait
Saddam ordered the invasion of Kuwait accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi oil through slant drilling into Iraq’s Rumaila oil fields. The Iraqi Republican Guard and mechanized divisions quickly overran Kuwait capturing the army of Kuwait and causing them to flee to Saudi Arabia. Saddam proclaimed Kuwait the 19th province of Iraq.

92 Persian Gulf War UN Security Council demanded removal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait When Saddam refused, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. A coalition of 34 nations led by the US, UK, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt fought to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Coalition of the Gulf War was successful and pursued Saddam’s forces into Iraq.

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