Presentation on theme: "Background, Times of Crisis, and Current Events"— Presentation transcript:
1Background, Times of Crisis, and Current Events The Middle EastBackground, Times of Crisis, and Current Events
2Middle East: Questions, Questions What three major religions were established in this region?Why is there so much conflict in this region?Why is terrorism prominent in the region?What is the United States doing there?Why can it be dangerous if Iran builds nuclear weapons?
3Three Religions Judaism – Jewish Christianity – Followers of Jesus Christ – related to Judaism – same God but believing Jesus Christ was God’s SonIslam – Muslims believe that they follow the same God as Jews and Christians but that those two faiths misunderstand the holy scriptures
4Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Similarities and Differences One GodFollowing basic, principles for living – respecting God and othersStrict Jews and Muslims adhere to similar dietary lawsMuslims respect Abraham (father of the Jews and Muslims), Moses (Ten Commandments, bringer of God’s law), and Jesus (He was a great teacher).
5Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: Similarities and Differences God comes first in life then relations with others (family, friends, neighbors)Daily prayer and relationship with GodJews and Muslims follow similar dietary laws – ex. No porkJews, Christians, and Muslims believe that women and men should be chaste until marriage and to honor marriageChristians and Muslims believe in heaven, hell, and a Last Judgment of souls
6Jerusalem: Holy Place for Three Religions Judaism – capital of ancient Israel, site of Solomon’s TempleChristianity – site of Jesus’ crucifixion, burial, and resurrectionIslam – site where Muhammad, the Prophet, met Allah
7Judaism: Basics Worshipping one God – Yahweh, Jehovah Following Ten Commandments – no other gods, no making idols, respecting the Sabbath, positive treatment of neighbors (no murder, stealing, adultery, coveting)Following the Law of Moses – certain restrictions on living, celebrating key holidays ex. PassoverImportance of their Holy Land, the place that God gave to them.Holy book – Torah (for Christians – the Old Testament)Hebrew – language of Jews
8Christianity: Basics Respect for Jews – Old Testament, Jesus was a Jew Jesus was Son of God (Jews and Muslims do NOT believe this), born to Virgin Mary, conceived by Holy SpiritBecame full-time minister at 30, taught about God and heaven, how to treat people, final judgment, and performed miracles and healed people.Crucified by Romans, resurrected from the dead on the third day (Easter) – Jews and Muslims do not believe thisHoly book – the Holy Bible (Old and New Testaments in one book. Old=before Jesus came to Earth, New=when Jesus came to Earth)
9Islam: Basics Founded in 600s by Muhammad, The Prophet Allah (God) spoke through the Angel Gabriel, who visited Muhammad several times explaining the will of AllahMuhammad made Mecca the capital of his Islamic kingdom – holy site – the KaabaJews and Christians were brothers who misunderstood the true God and needed to be correctedIslam expanded through the Middle East and North Africa even into Spain
12Visiting the Kaaba (built by Abraham and Ishmael) in Mecca
13Islam: Basics continued Holy book – Koran – visions given to the Prophet MuhammadMost blessed version written in ArabicFive Pillars of Islam – like Ten Commandments for Jews and ChristiansDaily profession of faith – One God Allah and His Prophet MuhammadPrayer five times a dayGiving alms to the poorFasting during Ramadan (holy month, changes from year to year)Pilgrimage to Mecca
14Zionism, Middle East, Jews, and Arabs How were Jews persecuted in Medieval and Early Modern Europe?What was the effect of the Dreyfus Affair?Sykes-Picot AgreementBalfour DeclarationKibbutz/kibbutzimWhat do you think?
15Jews and PersecutionMost Jews left Palestine – the area where Israel is – after major problems with the Roman Empire in the first centurySpread throughout Europe, Africa, AsiaHeavily persecuted in EuropeAttacked during Crusades (1195 – 1270)Blamed for Black Plague in 1347Targeted by Catholics in Spain 1492Lived in ghettoes in Renaissance Italian cities
16Persecution of Jews in Russia May Laws – czarist regime restricted Russian areas in which Jews could live; low quotas for admitting Jews to universities and professionsRussian Jews formed Zionist clubs – Chovevi Tzion (Lovers of Zion); BILU (Beit Ya’cov Ichu vnelcha – To the house of Jacob go and we will follow)Russian pogroms in early 1900s
17ZionismMovement to regain a Jewish homeland in Palestine; Zion name for hill of Jerusalem on which city of David builtEarly 19th century, most rabbis did not believe this could happen until return of MessiahLater 19th century, change of view in some rabbisOlim (ascenders) – Jewish immigrants to PalestineFirst aliya (going up) – First significant Jewish immigration to Palestine
18Zionism and ZionistsZionists – Jewish who wanted to reestablish Israel in PalestineLived all over the world, put their resources toward pressuring for thisPalestine ruled by Ottoman Turks until WWIDuring World War I, Lord Balfour made a promise to establish a homeland for Jews in Palestine (in exchange for Zionist support for the war effort)
19Zionists and Kibbutzim Zionists began to move back in small groups and formed communities in PalestinePermission granted by Ottoman Turks, rulers of PalestineFormed kibbutzim (collective farming communities – close to true communism!)Kibbutzim still exist. You may meet an Israeli some day who lived on a kibbutz!
20Theodor Herzl Renowned Austrian-Jewish writer 1896 – Der Judenstaat (The Jew’s State)Spread Zionism to wider audienceFirst International Zionist CongressResolution –Promote colonization of Palestine by Jewish farm and industrial workersOrganizing and uniting all Jews by means of suitable local and international institutions in compliance with the laws of other nationsStrengthening and encouraging of Jewish national sentiment and awarenessIntroducing moves towards receiving governmental approval where needed for the realization of Zionist goals
21Second AliyaHerzl toured, lectured, and wrote more books promoting ZionismWidespread appeal; died in 1904 but Zionism livedSecond Aliya – 1905 – 1914Building up institutions in their communities – schools, newspapers, theaters, sport clubs, trade unions, worker-owned factories
22What was the Sykes Picot Agreement? What nations were a part of the agreement?What did elements of this agreement say about the parties involved?
23Early Jewish Settlers20,000 Jewish settlers in Palestine; 570,000 local Arabic-speaking inhabitantsJews were less than 10 percentBought land and farmed itPalestine was ruled by Ottoman Empire, corrupt, inefficient, and suspicious of Zionists
24The Dreyfus Affair (1894 – 1906)French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew, accused and convicted of treason 1894; accused of giving military secrets to the German embassy in Paris.Sent to notorious prison colony Devil’s Island in French Guiana.1896 – New evidence – real culprit French Army Major Ferdinand Walsin EsterhazyHigh ranking military officials suppressed new evidence; Esterhazy was acquittedFurthermore, French counter-intelligence officer Hubert-Joseph Henry provided false documents to re-confirm Dreyfus conviction
26Dreyfus Affair continued News of the cover-up began to spread due to editorials in a Parisian newspaperFrench people were divided – Dreyfusards vs. anti-Dreyfusards, who were spurred by anti-Semitism1899 – Dreyfus brought back for new trial; exonerated and reinstated in as a major in 1906; served in WWI and reached rank of Lieutenant ColonelWhat did the Dreyfus Affair demonstrate?
27Why Palestine/Israel?In the 19th century, British government offered Zionists to settle in Kenya’s White Highlands (inaccurately known as the Uganda scheme).Zionism without the Zion – refusedWanted to be back in the ancient heartland of Judaism
28Palestine Site of ancient nation of Israel Conquered by ancient Romans – called JudeaJews left 1st – 2nd centuryNeighboring peoples moved in – referred to as PalestiniansSpread of Islam and importance of Jerusalem made Palestine very important
29Arch of TitusRomans celebrated their conquest of Jerusalem.
31Key Questions: Britain, Palestine, and Zionism How did Britain fail in dealing with Palestine and Zionism from World War I through World War II? How did Britain fail in handling Palestine and Zionism?What impact did Britain’s failure have on the future of Palestine?
32World War I and ZionismMembers of both the Allies and the Central Powers sought Jewish support for the war.Zionists found it easier to side with the Central Powers (many politically-interested Jews lived in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire.Germany wanted to support Zionism more but their ally the Ottomans disliked Zionism.Britain, who did not have as large of a Jewish population, took the lead in courting Zionists with Balfour Declaration.
33Balfour DeclarationIssued by Lord Arthur Balfour, British foreign secretary to Lord Rothschild, a prominent British Zionist.Declaration said that Britain would work toward helping create a Jewish homeland in Palestine but not at the expense of the rights of non-Jews (Muslims, Christians) in Palestine.
34Balfour DeclarationHis Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country
35Palestine --- British Mandate: Difficulty Britain was put in charge of Palestine after WWI (temporary military occupation)It had to fulfill its promise to Zionists and manage the migration of willing Jews to PalestineBritain knew how to deal with Arabs better (Egypt and Sudan); most olim (Jewish immigrants) were Eastern European (Brits unfamiliar with them)Britain was afraid to incite neighboring peoples in Middle East and Muslims in India (major Brit colony)
36Palestinian and Zionist Resentment April 1920, Palestinians revolted by attacking Jewish communitiesZionists accused British of encouraging it by punishing rebels too lightly and protecting the settlers too little
37Palestinian Mandate Britain went in two different directions Back in Britain and in the international arena, it affiliated itself more with the ZionistsIn Palestine, Brit officials favored Arabs influenced by a concern over Muslim public opinionLeague of Nations gave Palestine to Britain as a mandate; responsibility to encourage Jews to settle there, help create the Jewish national “home” (refused to use the term “state”), and set up a Jewish agency to assist Brit authorities in developing the national home
38Palestine different from Syria and Iraq Mandates Syria and Iraq Mandates were promised that they would be set up to achieve their independencePalestine, which had a majority Arab population, was going to be used for a Jewish home – a Western colonial entityArabs felt like they were going to be held in colonial bondage by British until Jews had a majority and could est. a state
39British Policies toward Palestinian Mandate Set up quotas restricting Jewish immigration based on Palestine’s “absorbative capacity”Not a problem in 1920s (quotas were larger than number of olim); problem when Hitler came to powerBritain gave 2/3 of Palestine east of the Jordan River to King Abdallah as the Emirate of Transjordan
40Jewish Discontent in Palestine Most Jewish leaders continued to work with British.REVISIONISTS – angry Jewish group in Palestine that advocated creating a state that would include both Palestine and Transjordan (in other words, taking back what Britain gave away to King Abdallah) cleansed of any Arabs who would oppose it.Revisionist ideas influenced Benjamin Netanyahu and Ariel Sharon.
41Jewish GovernorSir Herbert Samuel – Zionist who tried to be fair to all sides; appointed prominent Arab to be chief Muslim legal officer in Jerusalem.This guy undermined the collaborative process; appointed more extreme Palestinian Arabs to key posts – Palestinian Arab nationalism (Britain would try to deport him later)
42Possible to Keep Working Together Jewish immigration decreased between 1926 – 1928 (difficult life in Palestine)Complimentary relationship between Jews and Arabs – Jewish technical expertise and Arab know-how of land; Jewish capital and Arab labor.Some Jews advocated friendly relations with Arabs.Some Arabs quietly welcomed Jewish immigration and investment.
43Wailing Wall Incident and Effects 1929 Wailing Wall incident damaged relationsBritish did not address it adequately (court of inquiry sided with Arabs; blamed Jews for purchasing too much land – making Arabs homeless); tightened quotasClashes between Arabs and Jews in streetsArabs attacked areas with significant Jewish minorities (massacre at Hebron)Zionists pressured Britain, which issued a white paper reversing its findings on the causes of clash – showed how Britain was susceptible to Zionist political pressure
44Britain’s Indecisiveness When British Colonial Office took over Palestine from the army, it should have devised a clearer and fairer policy toward both Jews and Arabs.It did not.
45Palestine After World War I through World War II (1919 – 1946) Became a British protectorateBritish attempted to maintain peace between Palestinians and Zionists who returnedBritain controlled Jewish immigration to Palestine (keeping peace in area)Leading to Holocaust, many more Jews began returning (saw that Hitler was an evil man during 1930s).Britain capped immigration to satisfy Palestinian Muslims, trapping European Jews to meet their fate.
46Holocaust Jews were targeted by Nazis – 6 million dead During and after WWII, Poles, Russians, and other Eastern Europeans blamed Jews for the problems they experienced – continued to persecute them
47After World War II and the Holocaust World sympathy for Jews, greater support for a Jewish homeland in PalestineMany Jews from all over the world return to the Holy Land – UN creates plan for a Jewish state and a Palestinian state – rejected by Palestinians1947 – Britain turned Palestine over to UN and leave in 1948Jews proclaim the State of Israel in 1948United States is the first nation to recognize the existence of Israel before the United Nations.Wars with neighboring Islamic nations begin immediatelySome nations vow to never rest until Israel is destroyed
48Palestinians They lived and spread in the area after the Jews left Converted to Islam in the 600sPalestine became theirs from 2nd century into the 20th century.What happens to them as a result of the returning Jews?
49Two Peoples Claim the Same Land Jews and Muslims feel entitled to Palestine“On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, ‘To your descendants I give this land…” --- Genesis 15:18“He (Allah) has chosen you and has placed no hardship on you in practicing your religions – the religion of your father Abraham.” --- Koran 22:78
51Israel, Wars with Neighbors and Occupied Territories Wars in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 19731967 – Israel launches attack, takes control of areas controlled by Jordan and Egypt since 1948 – West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip.Also took control of Sinai Peninsula from Egypt and Golan Heights from Syria.1973 – Egypt and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur, one of the holiest days of the Jewish year.Fail to regain lost lands, which Palestinians called occupied territories. Israel’s government helps Israelis to build settlements in the occupied territories. This angers Palestinians.
53Key Terms 1948 War for Independence IDF Abdel Nasser Suez Affair 1956 (aka Suez Crisis)Negev DesertGulf of AqbaEilatTiran StraitsGolan Heights
541948 War for IndependenceMay Israel proclaims independence; gets invaded by armies from Egypt, Transjordan, several other nationsIsraeli Defense Force (IDF) grew to 100,000 men, women, and children – brought together Israeli terrorist organizations, militiasArab militaries underestimated (a force of less than 80 Israeli men, women, teens held up an Egyptian brigade headed for Tel Aviv for six days) than overestimated the powers of the IDF – low morale
551948 War for IndependenceUN intervened. There were periods of cease-fire then more fighting.IDF drove Syrian forces out into LebanonIsraeli forces attacked Arab positions around Hebron and BethlehemIsraeli forces pushed Egyptian and Arab Legion forces out of Gaza and into southern Negev; then Arab Legion lost control of the Negev
561948 War Aftermath Israel made peace agreement with Egypt Delegations did not meet face to face in Rhodes conferenceAgreement arranged by Ralph Bunche from US – UN negotiatorIsrael gained access to Gulf of Aqba (cut off direct land route from Egypt to Transjordan); signed armistice with Lebanon (March 1949), Syria (July 1949); Iraq never signed armistice and opposed peace with Israel725,000 Palestinian Arabs became refugees – arguments between Zionists and Arabs over why this occurred
58Israel’s Situation in 1950s All road and rail connections between Israel and neighbors cutPlanes going to and from Israel could not fly over Arab nationsArab states refused to trade with Israel and boycotted any products of foreign firms doing business thereShips carrying goods to Israel could not use Suez Canal or enter Arab portsEgypt blockaded Gulf of Aqba hurting growth at Eilat (port city)Raids by displaced Palestinians against Jewish settlements (violence perpetrated by both sides)
59The Suez Affair 1956 Egypt had been running the Suez Canal Israel invaded and took over the Sinai PeninsulaBritish and French paratroopers took over Port Said and gained control of northern part of the Suez CanalUS and Soviet Union condemned the attack which Egyptians called “tripartite aggression” (Brit, France, Israel)Israel withdrew from Sinai after US pressure; Egypt promised to lift blockade of Gulf of AqbaUN troops sent in to keep peace around Suez Canal and Tiran Straits (Gulf of Aqba to Red Sea)Lasted until May 1967
61The June 1967 War: PreludeSyria had been firing on Jewish settlements in Golan Heights; air fight between Syrian MiG fighters and Israeli jets, six planes shot downEgypt’s President Abdel Nasser asked UN to remove troops(UN Secretary General withdrew them without consulting Security Council)Nasser sent military units into key points in Gaza and Sinai (Sharm al-Shaykh – Tiran Straits); resumed blockade of Gulf of AqbaKing Husayn of Jordan made agreement with Nasser on joint military command in May 1967What message does this send to Israel?
63June 1967 War (aka Six Day War) Israel called up its reserves doubling size of its armiesPolitical parties put differences aside and join up to form an emergency cabinetIsrael launched preemptive air strike against Egyptian, Jordanian, and Syrian air bases to completely wipe out their war-making capacityIsraeli troops moved into Sinai and occupied it (Arabs accused IDF of dropping napalm on Jordanian troops; using scare tactics against Palestinian refugee camps and West Bank villages); 200,000 Palestinian refugees
64June 1967 War – Six Day WarMatch up – Arabs had 2,700 tanks vs. Israel’s 800; Arabs 800 fighter planes vs. Israel’s 190; Arabs 217 ships vs. Israel’s 37Why did Israel win? It attacked first. Wiped out Egyptian air force before it could get off the groundUnity (politically, militarily) vs. Arabs who were suspicious of each other and divided by rivalriesNY Times reported Israel had more troops on the field, deployed better firepower, and used greater mobility in battleEgyptian military bogged down in Yemen civil war
65Six Day War AftermathBy June , Israel expanded 3X what it was six days before.
67What happened as soon as Israel proclaimed its statehood What happened as soon as Israel proclaimed its statehood? What were the results?What were some of the difficulties that Israel had to deal with regarding its neighbors?What was the Suez Affair? When did it happen?What happened during the Six-Day War (June 1967 War)?Which group really seemed to be the victims in all of this?
68IDF Soldiers – First Israelis to come back to the Western Wall
69Arab-Israeli Conflict First and Second Intifada – Palestinian resistance to Israel; protests, guerilla warfare, terrorismOslo I Accords (1993) – “Declaration of Principles” – Israel to remove troops from Gaza and Jericho so Palestinians could set up governmentIsrael controls Jerusalem and Golan Heights; Palestinian Authority controls West Bank and Gaza Strip.Israel maintains blockade of Gaza. Why?Muslims have access to East Jerusalem (Temple Mount) but do not control it.
70Oslo Accord I (1993) – A Historic Handshake Yitzhak Rabin (Israel)President ClintonYasser Arafat (Palestin.)
71ReviewWhat are three similarities among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?How are they different?What was the Balfour Declaration? How did it affect Middle East relations?ZionismKibbutzPalestine and Palestinians
72OPEC Members Founded in Baghdad, Iraq in 1960 12 members Middle Eastern – Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab EmiratesSouth American – Venezuela, EcuadorAfrican – Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Algeria
73Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Group of 12 nations (6 of whom are Middle Eastern) that regulates the supply and price of oil among its member nationsOPEC’s objective is to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry (opec.org).
75OPEC What is the purpose of OPEC? Why do you think the Member Nations felt it necessary to unite?Consider the role that Western powers had played in the history of the Middle East.Why does OPEC have power over industrialized nations?
76Iraq Ruled by Ottoman Empire until after World War I Became a British protectorateMixed population80% Arab15% Kurdish5% Other groups (Assyrian, Turkish)Islamic but mixedSunni Muslims - ~ 35%Shi’ite Muslims - ~ 60%Other ~ 5%
77Iraq: BackgroundBritish protectorate 1919 – British managed disputes among the different groupsWestern powers (UK, US, France) played major role in Iraqi history due to OIL1931 – Independence but with pro-British governmentWorld War II – despite pro-Axis movement, Iraq stayed connected to the Allies
78Iraq – Rise of Saddam Hussein Several different political leaders during 1950s and 1960sOverthrowing each other with help of the US Central Intelligence Agency, whoever the US thought would be most against Soviet Union and favorable to US oil interests (usually the leaders were dictatorsUS helped a leader of the Baath Party come to power – Saddam Hussein
79Saddam Hussein Becomes Leader 1979 – Saddam become prime minister of IraqConsolidates power, becomes dictatorPlaces family members and friends from his hometown (Tikrit) in high government positions
83Iran – Iraq War 1980-1988 Several border disputes over the years Iran took control of some Iraqi border territories and the Shattab-al-Arab waterway – Iraq’s only access to sea, and supported a Kurdish revoltIran and Iraq reached a settlement, Iran ceased to support Kurdish revolt BUT did not return some landsSaddam invaded Iran while it was having a religious – political revolutionWar for 8 years – 1st Iraq invaded Iran, then Iran invaded Iraq1 million casualties – stopped fighting when both sides grew tiredBoth sides used chemical weapons against each other
86Iranian militia womanWhat might this suggest about the fighting during the Iran-Iraq War?
87Saddam Hussein and the Kurds Kurds - different ethnic group than the Arabs of IraqNationalistic – sought their own countrySaddam used chemical weapons against the Kurds - genocideKilled 182,000 KurdsCreated 400,000 Kurdish refugeesAfter US forces capture Saddam in 2003, he is given a public trial for war crimes and sentenced to death.New Iraqi government executes Saddam by hanging in 2006.
88The KurdsWhat part of Iraq due the Kurds occupy?
89Persian Gulf WarSaddam Hussein ordered an invasion of Kuwait.
91Iraq Invasion of Kuwait Saddam ordered the invasion of Kuwait accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi oil through slant drilling into Iraq’s Rumaila oil fields.The Iraqi Republican Guard and mechanized divisions quickly overran Kuwait capturing the army of Kuwait and causing them to flee to Saudi Arabia.Saddam proclaimed Kuwait the 19th province of Iraq.
92Persian Gulf WarUN Security Council demanded removal of Iraqi troops from KuwaitWhen Saddam refused, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq.A coalition of 34 nations led by the US, UK, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt fought to expel Iraq from Kuwait.Coalition of the Gulf War was successful and pursued Saddam’s forces into Iraq.