2Learning Outcomes By the end of this unit students will be able to: Identify formal writing techniques.Describe the positive and negative effects of reality television.Explain the history behind reality television.Write a 350 word opinion piece.
3Achievement Standard 1.5 Worth 3 credits You are writing a persuasive article to be published in a book that will explain young people’s views to an adult audience.Your piece of writing should be at least 350 words.Your article should clearly present your opinion about the topic.You may argue one side of a topic or you may present arguments for both sides.Students to copy – highlight what an adult audience is.
4Where do we see formal writing? Newspapers articlesFilm/Novel reviewsLiterary piecesLiterary responsesLetter WritingOpinion Pieces
5Purpose of Formal Writing To inform, persuade and communicate with a variety of different audiences.This can be done in many different types of mediums e.g. Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Internet etc.
6FORMAL WRITING GUIDELINES No Abbreviations Write out words like New Zealand, television, and Presentation. Always write out the word "and"; do not use symbols like "+" or "&."No Slang Don't use slang like "guys," "I like, really, don’t think so," "cops," "flunked," "he was really cool," etc.No etc. Don't use "etc." in your formal writing. If there is more to say, you need to say it, not allude to it through the use of "etc."No Contractions Write out "he is" not "he's"; write out "who is," not "who's"; write out "do not," not "don't"; etc.No Extra Words Avoid extra words like "well," "anyway," or "you know" that have no meaning. Don't write "I think" or "in my opinion"; because this is your writing, the point of view is clearly yours.
7FORMAL WRITING GUIDELINES Avoid First or Second Person In a formal paper, only third person is acceptable: he she, it they, and related forms (one, the reader, etc.). Don't use first (we, I, me, my, us, our, etc.) or second (you, your, yours) person unless approved by the teacher.Write Out Numbers Spell out numbers: "six" not '"6"; twenty-three" not "23." Dates and long numbers may be written numerically: 1997, 1845, 1,234,890.Titles: Underline titles of major works or place them in italics: novels, plays, movies, etc. Short works (short stories, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks.Proofread Check your paper for typing, spelling, and grammatical errors.Quotations NEVER copy an author's words without using quotations and crediting the source.
8Layout of a formal essay IntroductionParagraph 1Paragraph 2Paragraph 3Conclusion
9IntroductionIt needs to state your argument or topic, introduce your main pointsGrab the audience’s attention (rhetorical questions, surprising statistic)Make the reader want to carry on reading your essay.
10BodyThis is the most important part!! It includes your ideas mentioned in your introduction.Aim for three ideas with each being explained in a new paragraph. Start with the strongest point and place your weakest point in the 2nd paragraph.Use SEXY for each of your ideas. For the Your Opinion part – avoid using the words “I believe”. . Instead use phrases like: “This highlights” or “This proves” or “In order for society”. Or even place a suggestion or rhetorical question.
11ConclusionThis is the last part of your essay and should leave the reader to think about what they have just read.Restate the main points of your essay, reinforce your attitude without introducing any new information and give a strong thought provoking statement or rhetorical question.
12Videos Why is Reality TV so popular? Reality TV is Not the Real World
13History of Reality Television Reality TV as we know it began back in 1992 when MTV first broadcast The Real World.It was an experimental show7 people from different backgroundsLive together for several months and have their interactions filmed.It wasn't even known as reality TV back then, more so as a documentary.
14SurvivorIt was in 2002 when CBS's blockbuster hit called Survivor finally gave reality tv a name.A cast of regular people were exiled to a desert island to survive and undermine each other to win the Grand prize of one million dollars.Elizabeth Hasslebeck is now a famous star in her own right thanks to Survivor
15The negative changesAnother way reality tv has changed is that it is much more graphic now.In the first season of The Real World, it was real people living together.Now it has become seven people who are acting as they think they should based on the past sixteen seasons.Sex has become rampant since the Las Vegas season and roommate hookups, something only thought of the first few seasons, is now common place.
16In other words – the more drama the better People simply became overwhelmed and bored with tv, so they constantly reinvent the genre
17The good Trista and Ryan from The Bachelor Found love for one another Now they are married and have a childABC paid for their million dollar wedding
18The good and the badThe Kardashian Family now earn millions of dollars through their reality show and their endorsement deals.They find it difficult to film their series because of the cult following they have occurred.Should Baby Mason be filmed? What are his right?Do they value their privacy?
19The badPeople love to stereotype humans , here are just a few examples.Omarosa from the Apprentice, America hated her.Is it okay to publicize negative behaviour? Eg Nicole “Snookis” drunken arrest?
20The SadJade Goodie’s life was enriched financially, once she had appeared in Big BrotherShe was foul-mouthed to the point of bullying. The producers had introduced her for ratings – and it worked.The end result shamed her, and the nation, with accusations of racism and bullying.Her star began to fade but the outpouring of public goodwill, once it was clear that she wouldn’t survive the cancer, was amazing.
21The Ugly Susan Boyle Found international acclaim as a singer Pressure to conform to the industry’s expectationsFollowing the shows finale, she suffered a mental break downDoes money buy happiness?
22Media EffectsSome critics believe that audiences take in without question, and are influenced by anything, that the media throws at them. They describe the audience as passive. This is sometimes known as ‘the effects model’ or ‘the hypodermic syringe theory.’People who believe in the effects model often assume that:people (and society) will be ‘dumbed down’ by watching reality TVaudiences may be influenced by the ideas and values in some reality shows (e.g. celebrity, getting something for nothing, putting other people down, etc)certain types of viewers – e.g. teenagers, lower social grades, the less educated – are more vulnerable to such influences. Reality TV is often said to inspire crime cases, ‘copycat’, anti-social or passive behaviour.
23Satisfying Our NeedsThe ‘Four Needs’ (or ‘Uses and Gratifications’) theory by Blumler and Katz suggests that audiences use the media in four different ways.Entertainment and diversion: to find personal pleasure and enjoyment; emotional release from everyday life and its problems.Surveillance and information: to learn about the world, new experiences, other people; to satisfy curiosity; acquire new knowledge.Personal relationships: to enhance and explore relationships with other people, find companionship or substitute friendships on screen.Personal identity: to find support and reinforcement for one’s values and beliefs; to help understand oneself; to help explore one own identity.How far might these explain the popularity of reality TV with audiences?
24How do Audiences Watch? Different ‘Readings’ of a Reality Show Some people find The X Factor offensive or tedious, others find it riveting; some find CBB fascinating, others find it idiotic. How you respond depends on who you are, your background, age, attitudes and values.Some critics identify 3 main ways in which viewers react to – or ‘read’ – a text.The preferred reading (the way the producers want you to see it)The X Factor is great family entertainment and full of lovely Cheryl Cole and talent.The negotiated readingThe X Factor is OK but only for older, undiscriminating, couch potatoes.The oppositional reading (opposed to the way the producers want you to see it)The X Factor is offensive and degrading to contestants, is destroying the music industry, and undermines originality and creativity.How do you read The X Factor?
25Targeting the Audience Schedulingfinding the right time-slot for the target audience's needs;‘stripping’ a programme at the same time daily over a weekrunning repeats, extras, special eventspersonalising with online and on-demand downloadsInteractivity (the latest buzzword – what every producer wants to achieve)phone-ins, votes, competitions, web-based forums, chat-rooms, social network groups, text-message updates etc.Synergykeeping you interested through cross-media promotions – merchandising, websites, presenters/participants on TV and radio talk-shows, photo-opportunities and PR stories in the press, lifestyle and celeb magazines and so on.Which methods work for you?Targeting the Audience
26Group Activity- Reality Bites Get into groups of 4-5 and complete the following hand out.You will have 15minutes to complete the task.Be prepared to share and justify your answersThese questions will help you to formulate your point of view when it comes time to write.
27Positives and Negatives As a class we are going to brainstorm as many positive and negatives of Reality Television. Try to think of specific examples, to help back up your argument Split your page into 2 halves and rule up your page.
28Editing: How many mistakes can you find? Anthony Visits NickOn sunday, Anthony went over to Nicks house to playbasketball. They played a gam of one-on-one. Anthonymade six baskets, bute nick made eight Nick was the winner.After the game, both boys whent in side to have somesnack’s and watch television.
29Editing: How many mistakes can you find? Miniature GolfPhil Matthew, and Andrew played miniature golf. On the first hole, Phil got a hole-in-one! At another hole, Matthew's Ball went into the water The best golfur of the day was Andrew who finished with a score of 28. Everyone had a grate tim
3010 Types of Reality Shows 1.Talk Shows 2.Game Shows 3.Celebrity Shows - these include celebrity documentary style shows like Keeping Up With the Kardashians and Kathy Griffin: Life on the D List, as well as celeb based dating shows like Flavor of Love and Rock of Love4.Fly on the Wall Shows - these include shows like Big Brother, whose premise is simply throwing people into a unique living situation and filming the results5.Dating Shows - these include single episode dating shows like Fifth Wheel as well as dating shows that depict a search for a partner over several episodes, like The Bachelor and The Bachelorette6.Competition Shows - these shows are different from game shows in that they span several episodes and include things like Survivor and The Amazing Race
3110 Types of Reality Shows7.Job Based Shows - these programs have a competition component but the prize and the challenges are all based around a particular career. Think of The Apprentice, Top Chef and Project Runway8.Hoax Based Shows - hoax based reality shows feature the manipulation of either all of the participants or some of the participants. This includes shows like My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiancée and Joe Millionaire9. Hidden Camera Shows - Hidden camera shows are in the style of Candid Camera and Punk'd10. Talent Shows - these are among the most popular reality shows and include things like American Idol and America's Got Talent
32Could you be a reality Star? Producers look for people who are:Opinionated and outspoken andDisplay outrageous behaviour while beingAttention seekers and sometimes beAggressive towards otherThen they mix these crazy cats with:Shy, quiet and seemingly “normal” peoplePLUS more opinionated and aggressive people to createCONFLICT AND DRAMA
33How real is it?Generally there are hundreds of hours worth of footage , cut and edited to make an episode which is generally between 22 to 48 minutes long!Scenes are reshoot.Hair, make up and stylists to help them get ready for the day.Ads promoting the show use voice clips to misconstrue what really happens in a episode.
34Mark Schedule Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with ExcellenceDevelop and structure ideas in formal writing.Develop and structure ideas convincingly in formal writing.Develop and structure ideas effectively in formal writing.Use language features appropriate to audience and purpose in formal writing.Use language features appropriate to audience and purpose with control in formal writing.Use language features appropriate to audience and purpose with control to command attention in formal writing.
35Language features: Personal Pronouns Statistics Rhetorical Questions Triple constructionRepetitionIncomplete sentencesVary your sentence lengths
36Do it now! Get out the assessment hand out from Tuesday. Read the merit and achieved exemplars.Underline language techniques of both exemplars as you read:Personal PronounsStatistics/ ExamplesRhetorical QuestionsTriple constructionRepetitionIncomplete sentences
37ActivityYou are going to rewrite the introduction of the Bullying Article (Not Achieved exemplar).You are going to rewrite it from the negative point of view. Make sure you include a convincing 3 reasons why bullying is negative.Be prepared to share your intro with the class
38Introduction- Enticing your readers to want to carry on reading A strong opening: This will command your readers’ attention from the start. Imagine your reader is asking “Why should I care?”A clearly stated opinion: Your case should be clearly and strongly stated so that it is easy for readers to understand your point of view.State your 3 main points
39ExampleBullying is an issue we all need fight together. Imagine seeing a punch being delivered to one of your fellow classmates. That person falls to the ground. They hit the ground. They die. All whilst other students are filming this fight with their cell phones. Every year more and more students are being bullied and the footage is being uploaded to YouTube. Bullying is a reality for every school in New Zealand and with the advances in social media and technology, bullying is increasing throughout our country.
40S E X Y Paragraphs Statement- which states your main point. Explanation – Explain your point of view and the reasons behind it. You need to be convincing so the more explanation the better.Example- Use specific statistics, examples and quotes.Opinion- avoid using the words “I believe”. . Instead use phrases like: “This highlights” or “This proves” or “In order for society”. Or even place a suggestion or rhetorical question.
41ConclusionRe-state your opinion and your three points. Finish off on a strong point.Try using language features:Personal PronounsStatistcsRhetorical QuestionsTriple constructionRepetitionIncomplete sentencesVary your sentence lenghts
42Proofreading strengthen your opening to command attention replace informal words or phrases with words more appropriate for formal writingimprove the flow of your sentencesvary the way your sentences startimprove the links between ideasadd more supporting evidenceadd explanations to link your evidence to your ideas.Proofing means that you should check your work carefully for errors. Here is a list of some common problems in student writing:missing punctuation (for example, full stops, commas, apostrophes, speech marks)missing or misused capital lettersincomplete or incorrect sentencesincorrect paragraphingmisspelt wordsmixed-up tenses
43Formal Writing Checklist Check for missing punctuation(for example, full stops, commas, apostrophes, speech marks)Capital letters for names, places.All words need to be spelt in full e.g TelevisionAll titles of TV shows needs to be italics.Print your work off and read out loud to help you find the errors