Presentation on theme: "Transforming the system to improve quality and reduce costs 18 th May 2012 Helen"— Presentation transcript:
Transforming the system to improve quality and reduce costs 18 th May 2012 Helen Jim Easton
Programme 9.00Welcome, introductions and warm upHelen Bevan Jim Easton 9.30The generational challenge for improvement: rethinking quality and cost improvement: improving improvement: introducing the NHS Change Model Jim Easton 10.40Aligning intrinsic motivation for changes with drivers of extrinsic motivation and connecting with shared purpose Helen Bevan 11.45Innovation for quality and cost improvement at scaleHelen Bevan 12.15Lunch 1.00Engagement to mobilise and leadership of changeHelen Bevan 1.45System drivers, rigorous delivery and transparent measurement Jim Easton 2.30Improvement methodologyHelen Bevan 3.00Building alignment: why the sum is so much greater than the parts Jim Easton Helen Bevan 4.00Close
Introductions: finish the sentence Introduce yourself to others on your table by finishing these three sentences: The change initiative that I am currently working on that I would like to reflect on today is... The problem we are addressing is... The strengths we are building on are... Your answer to each question should literally be one sentence
The NHS Change Model
Our case study
Four Harms 200,000 patients £430 million
Pressure ulcers Falls Urinary infections (in patients with catheters) VTE Harmfreecare Absence of harm from
Why we selected these harms common harms important to patients and their carers significant improvements can be made to deliver reductions in all four patients who have one of these harms may be at higher risk of one (or more) of the other harms Where we have focussed our efforts in reducing one, we may have had a negative impact on the others e.g. We may deliver a successful intervention to reduce VTE or pressure ulcers but in doing so increase falls Delivering harm free care involves one plan to deliver against four common harms across a whole community
Pressure Ulcer Fall (with harm) Urine Infection (catheters) VTEHarm free care? Patient 1noyes No Patient 2no yes No Patient 3yes Yes Patient 4yes No Patient 5yes noyesNo Protected from all four harms?
Pressure Ulcer Fall (with harm) Urine Infection (catheters) VTEHarm free care? Patient 1noyes No Patient 2no yes No Patient 3yes Yes Patient 4yes No Patient 5yes noyesNo One in five Protected from all four harms?
Pr Ulcer Risk Assessment Risk Management Nutrition & Hydration Medication Equipment Continence Falls CA-UTI VTE One plan – four harms
GuideMeasureStoriesE learning 2
Four key messages underpinning the NHS Change Model 1.To achieve large scale change, we need the intrinsic motivation of connection to shared purpose, engaging to mobilise, transformational leadership skills 2.However, we also need drivers of extrinsic motivation; transparent measurement and holding to account, incentivising payment systems, performance management systems if we are going to create change across the system 3.What happens if we don’t align intrinsic and extrinsic factors is that the extrinsic factors kill off the energy and creativity that is necessary for delivery 4.We need an aligned approach
Compliance States a minimum standard of performance/ target that everyone must achieve Uses hierarchy, systems and standard procedures for co- ordination and control Threat of penalties/ sanctions/ shame creates momentum for delivery Commitment States a collective goal that everyone can aspire to Based on shared goals, values and sense of purpose (“us and us” rather than “us and them”) for co-ordination and control Commitment to a common purpose creates energy for delivery Managing duality Source: Helen Bevan
Approaches to change Deficit based what is wrong? solving problems identifying development and improvement needs gaps and deficiencies to be filled Asset based what is right that we can build on? exploiting existing assets and resources “positive deviance” amplifying what works
Our shared purpose
“Paradoxically, the most important first task in creating a successful quality and cost improvement strategy is not to identify the size of the challenge or to work out which areas of service delivery offer the greatest opportunity for change. Rather, it is to create a deeper meaning in the challenge that lies ahead, to link the cost improvement programme to the higher purpose of the organisation or NHS system. The framing for quality and cost improvement isn’t just about cost and quality improvement. We want to think deeply about the meaning of what we are asking people to do in an era of quality and cost improvement. Fundamentally, it is about the higher purpose of the NHS and the calling that each of us has to serve that purpose.
Energy generators Connection How far someone sees and feels a connection between what matters to them and what matters to the organisation Content How far the actual role, job, task that someone does is enjoyable to them and challenges them Context How far the way that the organisation operates and the physical conditions within which someone works makes them feel supported Climate How far “the way we do things around here” encourages individuals and teams to give of their best Source: Stanton Marris
Energy generators Connection How far someone sees and feels a connection between what matters to them and what matters to the organisation Content How far the actual role, job, task that someone does is enjoyable to them and challenges them Context How far the way that the organisation operates and the physical conditions within which someone works makes them feel supported Climate How far “the way we do things around here” encourages individuals and teams to give of their best Source: Stanton Marris Which of these four Cs generates the most energy for the healthcare workforce? Which C is the most energy sapping?
Four sources of energy EnergyDescription IntellectualEnergy of analysis, logic, thinking, rationality. Drives curiosity, planning and focus EmotionalEnergy of human connection and relationships. Essential for teamwork, partnership, alignment and collaboration SpiritualEnergy of vitality, passion, the future and sense of possibility. Brings hope and optimism and helps people feel more ready and confident to build the future PhysicalEnergy of action, making things happen and getting them done. Key part of vitality, maintaining concentration and commitment Source: adapted from Steve Radcliffe
Conclusions about energies for quality and cost improvement in healthcare Tendency to focus on intellectual energy –connecting intellect to intellect keeps us in our comfort zone –it isn’t transformational We will achieve greater results if we link physical energy to emotional and spiritual energy
Guess who understood the importance of spiritual energy? “Society becomes more wholesome, more serene, and spiritually healthier, if it knows that its citizens have at the back of their consciousness the knowledge that not only themselves, but all their fellows, have access, when ill, to the best that medical skill can provide.” Aneurin Bevan, founder of the NHS
“ Large scale change is fuelled by the passion that comes from the fundamental belief that there is something very different and better that is worth striving for” Leading Large Scale Change (2011) NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement
“Turn your face to the sun and the shadows fall behind you” Māori whakatauki
“Money incentives do not create energy for change; the energy comes from connection to meaningful goals” Ann-Charlott Norman, Talking about improvements: discursive patterns and their conditions for learning, March 2012
Discretionary effort is contractual is personal
Harm free care: our higher purpose
Key questions Is the ‘higher purpose’ for my change initiative clear and recognised by our leaders, workforce and partners? Are our quality and cost improvement proposals explicitly framed as a connection to the higher purpose?
Innovation Review by Chief Executive of the NHS “It is widely accepted that more of the same will not do. More radical changes in the way services are delivered and how people work will be required. We need to plot a sustainable course for the future of the NHS. Innovation can help provide the route-map, improving quality at the same time as driving productivity and efficiency in a difficult financial environment” Department of Health (2011). Innovation, health and wealth: accelerating adoption and diffusion in the NHS. Page 4. cationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_ cationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_131299
Types of innovation Process innovation Service innovation Strategy innovation Source: Kathryn Baker
Task What are the differences between process, service and strategy innovations? Think about some examples of each from your own experience
Examples of process innovation Redesigning the appointment process in the GP surgery Reinventing the triage process in Accident and Emergency Making it easier for patients to order repeat prescriptions Redesigning the job application process within recruitment and selection Introducing a rapid turnaround “one stop shop” for outpatient testing
Strategy innovation “the question today is not whether you can reengineer your processes; the question is whether you can reinvent the entire industry model ” Gary Hamel
Examples of strategy innovation Transforming the paradigm of urgent and emergency care across the community Designing radical new integrated models of health and social care for people with long term conditions Shifting power: patients, families and communities as co-creators and producers of health Building new approaches to large scale change based on mobilising principles from social movements and community organising
Examples of service innovation Creating new specialist services in the community, eg, intravenous therapy, deep vein thrombosis, complex wound clinics Introducing hyperacute stroke services across the city Creating a “virtual” induction for all newly appointed clinical staff Radical redesign of the clinical pathway for people who break their hips Introducing “virtual wards” for intensive support outside of hospital
Kinds of service innovation Parker H Making the shift: a review of NHS experience. Health Services Management Centre and NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement sciences/social-policy/HSMC/publications/2006/Making-the-Shift.pdfhttp://www.bhamlive3.bham.ac.uk/Documents/college-social- sciences/social-policy/HSMC/publications/2006/Making-the-Shift.pdf Integration Segmentation Simplification Substitution
Substitution: providing higher value, lower cost care for patients/service users through location substitution: substituting high tech clinical environments for community based settings skills substitution: enhancing the skills of specific groups of staff to undertake roles previously undertaken by those with a higher skill level, for instance enabling nurses to prescribe drugs, a role that was previously only carried out by doctors technological substitution: maximising the use of new technologies in the service. A specific type of technological substitution is channel shift clinical substitution: moving from a medical care model to community care or family or self care model organisational substitution: looking at a wider range of providers to those who have traditionally delivered NHS care, for instance voluntary and community groups and social enterprises.
Type of innovation Current prevalence in quality and cost efforts Risk Contribution to large scale change How to spread Process Service Strategy
Key questions What combination of process, service and strategy innovations do my improvement plans require? What are the implications for the ways I need to spread them? What levers are available to me to spread innovation in my current context? How do I use them? How am I linking spread of innovation to other components of the change model?
The NHS Change Model
Engagement to mobilise and leadership of change
Leaders ask their staff to be ready for change, but do not engage enough in sensemaking Sensemaking is not done via marketing...or slogans but by emotional connection with employees Ron Weil
A challenge “What the leader cares about (and typically bases at least 80% of his or her message to others on) does not tap into roughly 80% of the workforce’s primary motivators for putting extra energy into the change programme” Scott Keller and Carolyn Aiken (2009) The Inconvenient Truth about Change Management
Leaders as “signal generators” “As a leader, think of yourself as a “signal generator” whose words and actions are constantly being scrutinised and interpreted, especially by those below you [in the hierarchy]” “Signal generators reduce uncertainty and ambiguity about what is important and how to act” Charles O’Reilly, Leaders in Difficult Times, 2009
Framing Is the process by which leaders construct, articulate and put across their message in a powerful and compelling way in order to win people to their cause and call them to action Snow D A and Benford R D (1992)
But not all emotions are equal inertia urgency anger apathy solidarity isolation you can make a difference Self-doubt hope fear Overcome Action motivatorsAction inhibitors Source: Marshall Ganz
Two films on harm free care Key principle in mobilising narrative is “show don’t tell” Show what is possible rather than tell people what to do Make a connection with emotions through values Call people to action Watch both films from a “show don’t tell” perspective
Leadership styles matter StylePrimary objective Directive Immediate compliance Visionary Providing long-term direction and vision for employees Affiliative Creating harmony among employees and between the leader and employees Participative Building commitment among employees and generating new ideas Pacesetting Accomplishing tasks to high standards of excellence Coaching Long-term professional development of employees
Leadership styles used: the dominance of pacesetting
Climate dimensions What it feels like when the climate is good FlexibilityThere are no unnecessary rules, procedures or practices; new ideas are easily accepted ResponsibilityEmployees are given the authority to accomplish tasks without having to constantly check for approval StandardsChallenging but attainable goals are set for the organisation and its employees RewardsEmployees are recognised and rewarded for good performance ClarityEveryone within the organisation knows what is expected of them Team commitment People are proud to belong to the organisation
Transformational leadership: why do large scale change efforts fail? They get designed using the same mindset, beliefs and rules as have been used before they get designed as top down, often structural, solutions rather than transformation of complex adaptive systems lack of a holistic model or perspective which links components together A “voltage drop” occurs between radical change aspirations and the reality of implementation: organisations are neither capable of, nor ready for, the breadth and depth of change operational and financial reality gets in the way of re-inventing the system
They fail to mobilise clinical and managerial leaders Lack of emotional engagement and alignment of incentives with core values Scale and pace: it typically takes far longer than the planning horizons of leaders diffusion approach does not go to plan - we are able to generate change (“pilots”), but unable to generalise it Transformational leadership: why do large scale change efforts fail?
They fail to mobilise clinical and managerial leaders Lack of emotional engagement and alignment of incentives with core values Scale and pace: it typically takes far longer than the planning horizons of leaders diffusion approach does not go to plan - we are able to generate change (“pilots”), but unable to generalise it Transformational leadership: why do large scale change efforts fail? In around 80% of cases, failure can be traced back to the early stages: change programmes are most likely to go wrong as a result of the way they are initially conceptualised and planned
Leading large scale change: ten key principles 1.Moving towards a new vision that is better and fundamentally different from the status quo 2.Identifying and communicating key themes that people can relate to and that will make a big difference 3.Multiples of things (‘lots of lots’) 4.Framing the issues in ways that engage and mobilise the imagination, energy and will of a large number of diverse stakeholders 5.Mutually reinforcing change across multiple processes/subsystems
6.Continually refreshing the story and attracting new, active supporters 7.Emergent planning and design, based on monitoring progress and adapting as you go 8.Enabling many people to contribute to the leadership of change, beyond organisational boundaries 9.Transforming mindsets, leading to inherently sustainable change 10.Maintaining and refreshing the leaders’ energy over the long haul Leading large scale change: ten key principles
Key questions What leadership strengths can we build on to deliver our quality and cost goals? How can we develop leadership skills for transformation? What does our focus need to be? How does our strategy for building transformational leadership and engaging to mobilise link with other components of the change model?
The NHS Safety Thermometer …. Operational definitions Getting started Using data for improvement Best in class 80,000 patients surveyed to date (January 2012) 4
Key questions To what extent are you using these components to drive your change? How do we balance the risks and benefits of applying these components? How does our strategy for building these three components link with other components of the change model?
Utilise an evidence-based quality improvement methodology
What’s the difference/ relationship between an improvement methodology and a change model? Are you utilising an evidence based quality improvement methodology?
This might include one or more elements of the following: Lean Six Sigma The EFQM Excellence Model NHS Institute approach to Large Scale Change Institute for Healthcare Improvement (USA) Model for Improvement We don’t recommend one improvement approach above the others because: whilst from a research evidence viewpoint, all the approaches can demonstrate impact, none of them stands out as being more successful in healthcare than any of the others You should build on what you are already using (strength or asset based) all the methodologies enjoy some common features each has particular strengths for different problems they may be used in combination, particularly where change is required at different scales simultaneously You may want to create your own approach that combines a number of the methodologies
Key questions To what extent are you using an evidence-based methodology to drive your change? How does our strategy for building this component link with other components of the change model?