Presentation on theme: "The nature of development From the moment of conception, human beings undergo processes of development. Development is the pattern of change that begins."— Presentation transcript:
The nature of development From the moment of conception, human beings undergo processes of development. Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. It refers to the changes over time in structure, thought or behavior of a person as a result of both biological and environmental forces. Development is a product of biological, cognitive and socio-emotional process.
Biological process- involves changes in an individual’s physical nature, e.g. height and weight gains. Cognitive process- changes in thought, intelligence, e.g. putting together a two-word sentence, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star. Socio-emotional process- changes in relationships with others, emotions and personality, e.g. an infant’s smile in response to mother’s touch, a girl’s shyness in interacting with others.
Periods of development StageAgeBasic characteristics PRENATAL Germinal: 0-2 weeks Embryonic: 2-8 weeks Fetal: 8-birth Conception to birthGrowth from a single cell to an organism with brain and behavioral capabilities. INFANCY Neonate: birth-2 weeks Infancy: 2 weeks-2 years Birth to monthsA time of extreme dependence on adults. Language, symbolic thought, sensor motor coordination and social learning just beginning. EARLY CHILDHOODEnd of infancy to 5/6 years Through preschool, they become more self- sufficient
MIDDLE and LATE CHILDHOOD 6 TO 11 yearsLearn 3Rs and are fundamentally exposed to the larger world and its culture. ADOLESCENCE10-12 to yearsPeriods of transition from childhood to adulthood, involves rapid physical growth. Thought is more logical and abstract, and pursuit of independence and identity is prominent.
Developmental issues 1) Maturation and experience 2) Continuity and discontinuity 3) Early and later experience Maturation and experience (nature vs. nurture) Maturation is the orderly sequence of changes dictated by the genetic blue print that we each have. It is the physical development of an organism as it fulfils its genetic potential.
Nature proponents claim that biological inheritance is the most important influence on development, while nurture proponents claim that environment experiences are most important. Continuity and discontinuity (gradual vs. abrupt) Some developmentalists emphasis the continuity of development (development involves gradual, cumulative change from conception to death). While others focus on the discontinuity of development (it involves distinct stages in life span)
Early and later experience Some believe that early experiences of a child determines his/her later development. While others believe that development continues to be like a ebb and flow of the river rather than statue like.