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The nature of development  From the moment of conception, human beings undergo processes of development.  Development is the pattern of change that begins.

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Presentation on theme: "The nature of development  From the moment of conception, human beings undergo processes of development.  Development is the pattern of change that begins."— Presentation transcript:

1 The nature of development  From the moment of conception, human beings undergo processes of development.  Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.  It refers to the changes over time in structure, thought or behavior of a person as a result of both biological and environmental forces.  Development is a product of biological, cognitive and socio-emotional process.

2  Biological process- involves changes in an individual’s physical nature, e.g. height and weight gains.  Cognitive process- changes in thought, intelligence, e.g. putting together a two-word sentence, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star.  Socio-emotional process- changes in relationships with others, emotions and personality, e.g. an infant’s smile in response to mother’s touch, a girl’s shyness in interacting with others.

3 Periods of development StageAgeBasic characteristics PRENATAL Germinal: 0-2 weeks Embryonic: 2-8 weeks Fetal: 8-birth Conception to birthGrowth from a single cell to an organism with brain and behavioral capabilities. INFANCY Neonate: birth-2 weeks Infancy: 2 weeks-2 years Birth to monthsA time of extreme dependence on adults. Language, symbolic thought, sensor motor coordination and social learning just beginning. EARLY CHILDHOODEnd of infancy to 5/6 years Through preschool, they become more self- sufficient

4 MIDDLE and LATE CHILDHOOD 6 TO 11 yearsLearn 3Rs and are fundamentally exposed to the larger world and its culture. ADOLESCENCE10-12 to yearsPeriods of transition from childhood to adulthood, involves rapid physical growth. Thought is more logical and abstract, and pursuit of independence and identity is prominent.

5 Developmental issues 1) Maturation and experience 2) Continuity and discontinuity 3) Early and later experience Maturation and experience (nature vs. nurture)  Maturation is the orderly sequence of changes dictated by the genetic blue print that we each have.  It is the physical development of an organism as it fulfils its genetic potential.

6  Nature proponents claim that biological inheritance is the most important influence on development, while nurture proponents claim that environment experiences are most important. Continuity and discontinuity (gradual vs. abrupt)  Some developmentalists emphasis the continuity of development (development involves gradual, cumulative change from conception to death).  While others focus on the discontinuity of development (it involves distinct stages in life span)

7 Early and later experience  Some believe that early experiences of a child determines his/her later development.  While others believe that development continues to be like a ebb and flow of the river rather than statue like.


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