Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT? To put it simply development is about growth and change - milestones."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT? To put it simply development is about growth and change - milestones.
2 Lifespan stages Prenatal Before Birth - The period from conception to birth Embryo – First 3 months (approx) after conception Fetus – 3 – 9 months (approx) after conception Neonatal Birth to 4-6 weeks
3 Lifespan stages Postnatal – after birth The period from birth on Infancy – Birth to 18 mths (approx.) Toddlerhood - 18 mths to 3 yrs (approx) Early childhood (preschool) – 3 to 5 yrs (approx) Middle childhood (school age) – 6 to 12 years (approx)
4 Lifespan stages (cont) Teenage years (teenagers) – 13 to 20 years (approx.) Adulthood Early adulthood – 21 to 34 years Middle adulthood – 35 to 60 years Late adulthood – 61 to death
5 Developmental patterns People reach developmental milestones within certain age ranges. Developmental norms The age range within which most people in a specific culture reach a certain milestone is called a norm. Also known as typical development. Developmental sequence Development usually occurs in sequence.
6 Maturation Changes in the child which are biological and programmed by the genes Learning Changes in behaviour that occur as a result of experience Growth Specific changes and increases in the childs actual size. Temperament An individuals typical style of responding to people or situations
7 Basic principles of development Development is sequential, orderly and predictable. There are individual differences in development. Development occurs in different stages. Development is influenced by both environment and hereditary factors. There are critical periods during the life span for the development of behaviours or skills.
8 Development occurs over time and is ongoing from birth to death. Development progresses from the simple to the more complex. Development is transactional (depends upon interactions with the environment) The cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles govern development.
9 CEPHALOCAUDAL Latin for head to tail Eg. INFANTS have larger and more developed heads at birth that the torso, arms and legs. By MIDDLE CHILDHOOD - less obvious but heads are still slightly larger in relation to the rest of the body than they are in adulthood. PROXIMODISTAL Refers to growth development from areas nearest the centre of the body, out to the extremities. Eg An infant in the first months will have little control over reaching and grasping an object. Later the same child will gain control over the outer extremities, their fingers and hands. Nixen, D and Gould, K (eds) (2000), Extending, p22.