Presentation on theme: "To put it simply development is about growth and change - milestones."— Presentation transcript:
1To put it simply development is about growth and change - milestones. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?To put it simply development is about growth and change - milestones.
2Lifespan stages Prenatal Before Birth - The period from conception to birthEmbryo – First 3 months (approx) after conceptionFetus – 3 – 9 months (approx) after conceptionNeonatalBirth to 4-6 weeks
3Lifespan stages Postnatal – after birth The period from birth on Infancy – Birth to 18 mths (approx.)Toddlerhood - 18 mths to 3 yrs (approx)Early childhood (preschool) – 3 to 5 yrs (approx)Middle childhood (school age) – 6 to 12 years (approx)
4Lifespan stages (cont) Teenage years (teenagers) – 13 to 20 years (approx.)AdulthoodEarly adulthood – 21 to 34 yearsMiddle adulthood – 35 to 60 yearsLate adulthood – 61 to death
5Developmental patterns People reach developmental milestones within certain age ranges. Developmental norms The age range within which most people in a specific culture reach a certain milestone is called a norm. Also known as typical development. Developmental sequence Development usually occurs in sequence.
6Maturation Changes in the child which are biological and programmed by the genes Learning Changes in behaviour that occur as a result of experience Growth Specific changes and increases in the child’s actual size. Temperament An individual’s typical style of responding to people or situations
7Basic principles of development Development is sequential, orderly and predictable.There are individual differences in development.Development occurs in different stages.Development is influenced by both environment and hereditary factors.There are critical periods during the life span for the development of behaviours or skills.Pose question:Can you identify a skill which develops in a sequential, orderly and predictable manner? Eg. sit, crawl, stand, walk, run (from about 6 months of age)]HANDOUT – physical milestones
8Development occurs over time and is ongoing from birth to death. Development progresses from the simple to the more complex.Development is transactional (depends upon interactions with the environment)The cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles govern development.
9Nixen, D and Gould, K (eds) (2000), Extending, p22. CEPHALOCAUDALLatin for head to tailEg. INFANTS have larger and more developed heads at birth that the torso, arms and legs. By MIDDLE CHILDHOOD - less obvious but heads are still slightly larger in relation to the rest of the body than they are in adulthood.PROXIMODISTALRefers to growth development from areas nearest the centre of the body, out to the extremities.Eg An infant in the first months will have little control over reaching and grasping an object. Later the same child will gain control over the outer extremities, their fingers and hands.Nixen, D and Gould, K (eds) (2000), Extending, p22.PRACTICAL– Painting to identify Cehpalocaudal and Proximodistal principles ie. Drip paint down page, butterfly painting.