Presentation on theme: "DED 101 E DUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANIZBAR 17 th June, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
DED 101 E DUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANIZBAR 17 th June, 2011
OUTLINE Meaning of Child Development Important Theorists of Child Development Periods of Child Development Domains of Child Development Importance of studying Children
Definition of Development (Oxford Concise Dictionary;2009) defines development as a specified state of growth or advancement (Michelle;2000) defines development as the pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span. (Berk;2007) defines development as the transformation or pattern of changes that are orderly, cumulative and directional Orderly: there is logical sequence to change Cumulative: includes all that was there plus something new (value added) Directional: moves toward greater complexity
Child Development vs. Developmental Psychology Child Development – a field devoted to understanding all aspects of human growth and change from conception through adolescence. Developmental Psychology – the more general field of study, that includes child development, and is devoted to understanding all aspects of human growth and change across the entire lifespan.
A dependent new born baby develops Language, self-awareness, a personality, and physical abilities, among other things To become a capable independent young person
Certain aspects of development are predictable. Focus their eyes Sit up Learn to walk Begin to speak Develop logical reasoning skills Around the world most infants and children do the following at about the same time. Development proceeds through a certain sequence How it happens
Source: Dr. Mandana Ahsani (2009) Periods of Development
The Prenatal Period – from conception to birth. Infancy and Toddlerhood – from birth to 2 years. Early Childhood – from 2 to 6 years. Middle Childhood – from 6 to 11 years. Adolescence – from 11 to 20 years. Periods of Child Development
Mainly through observations which result into theories proposed by psychologists. Theorists propose explanations for how children grow and develop. Focus on different aspects of development (moral, physical, intellectual, etc.) How we Study Children
1.Is development continuous or discontinuous? Or both? 2.Is there a single, universal course of development, or are there many? 3.Is “ nature ” or “ nurture ” more important for development? *Theories in development answer these questions The Three Questions
CONTINUITY VERSUS DISCONTINUITY GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT STAGES NATURE VERSUS NURTURE HEREDITY BIOLOGY GENETICS ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE GENERATIONKNOWLEDGE GENERATION REMAIN THE SAME AT LATER STAGE CHANGES AT LATER STAGE STABILITY VERSUS CHANGE
Continuity Vs. Discontinuity Continuous theory of development: development follows a smooth progression from infancy to adulthood, with a single quantitative dimension Discontinuous (stage) theory of development: development occurs in stages, each qualitatively different from the one before THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT
Figure 2.2 The course of development as described by continuity and discontinuity (stage) theorists. Source; (Huitt;2009)
Nature vs. Nurture Nature – inborn biological givens – the hereditary information children receive from their parents at the moment of concept that signals the body to grow and affects all their characteristics and skills. Nurture – the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence children ’ s biological make up and psychological experiences before and after birth. THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT
Stability v. Change Stability – children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages. Change – children who are high or low in a characteristic can change at later ages, typically due to changes in the environment in either a positive or negative way. THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT
Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Was based on his therapy with troubled adults. He emphasized that a child's personality is formed by the ways which his parents managed his sexual and aggressive drives.
Personality develops in eight psychosocial stages through the life span. Social relationships and conscious thought are important. Nurture, but nature also important Stages build on each other Child Active in development Erik Erikson Psychosocial
Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions. Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it. Described children's understanding as their "schemas” and how they use: assimilation accommodation. Jean Piaget Cognitive Developmental
Agreed that children are active learners, but their knowledge is socially constructed. Cultural values and customs dictate what is important to learn. Children learn from more expert members of the society. Vygotsky described the "zone of proximal development", where learning occurs. Lev Vygotsky Psychosocial Development
BF Skinner Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement (rewards) increase a desired behavior Negative Reinforcement (punishment) decrease an undesired behavior Rewards and punishments shape behavior when given right after the behavior is demonstrated
Bandura Social Learning Bandura believed that people learn behavior by observing and imitating others –“ Monkey see, Monkey do ” Typical Social Learning Theory comment: –“ You can teach a dog new tricks if you show him how to do it, and reward him each time he does a good job. ”
Physical Development – changes in body size, proportions, appearances, and the functioning of various body systems – brain development, perceptual and motor capabilities, and physical health. Cognitive Development – development of a wide variety of thought processes and intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and the uniquely human capacity to represent the world through language. Emotional and Social Development – development of emotional communication, self-understanding, ability to manage one ’ s own feelings, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior. Moral Development – development of personal rules and conventions regarding one ’ s interactions with others
Importance of childhood time Childhood, a crucial time Self-esteem developed in childhood A child who feels good about themselves is more likely to be able to overcome problems later in life. Developmental tasks occur in succession.
Why study child development? Guidance for parents and other care-givers Helps society to support healthy growth. Helps identify and help children with special needs Contributes to self- understanding – Understanding the influences and experiences that shaped you
Why study Child development? It is possible for effective teaching to take place when the teacher understands how students think and how they view the world. Effective teaching strategies must take into account students’ ages and stages of development.