Presentation on theme: "DED 101 Educational psychology, guidance and counseling"— Presentation transcript:
1DED 101 Educational psychology, guidance and counseling THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANIZBAR17th June, 2011
2OUTLINE Meaning of Child Development Important Theorists of Child DevelopmentPeriods of Child DevelopmentDomains of Child DevelopmentImportance of studying Children
3Definition of Development (Oxford Concise Dictionary;2009) defines development as a specified state of growth or advancement(Michelle;2000) defines development as the pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span.(Berk;2007) defines development as the transformation or pattern of changes that are orderly, cumulative and directionalOrderly: there is logical sequence to changeCumulative: includes all that was there plus something new (value added)Directional: moves toward greater complexity
4Child Development vs. Developmental Psychology Child Development – a field devoted to understanding all aspects of human growth and change from conception through adolescence.Developmental Psychology – the more general field of study, that includes child development, and is devoted to understanding all aspects of human growth and change across the entire lifespan.
5Child Development is what happens when. . . A dependent new born baby developsLanguage, self-awareness, a personality, and physical abilities, among other thingsTo become a capable independent young person
6How it happens Certain aspects of development are predictable. Focus their eyesSit upLearn to walkBegin to speakDevelop logical reasoning skillsAround the world most infants and children do the following at about the same time.Development proceeds through a certain sequence
7Periods of Development Source: Dr. Mandana Ahsani (2009)
8Periods of Child Development The Prenatal Period – from conception to birth.Infancy and Toddlerhood – from birth to 2 years.Early Childhood – from 2 to 6 years.Middle Childhood – from 6 to 11 years.Adolescence – from 11 to 20 years.
9How we Study ChildrenMainly through observations which result into theories proposed by psychologists.Theorists propose explanations for how children grow and develop.Focus on different aspects of development (moral, physical, intellectual, etc.)
10The Three QuestionsIs development continuous or discontinuous? Or both?Is there a single, universal course of development, or are there many?Is “nature” or “nurture” more important for development?*Theories in development answer these questions
11REMAIN THE SAME AT LATER STAGE CONTINUITY VERSUS DISCONTINUITYGRADUAL DEVELOPMENTSTAGESNATURE VERSUS NURTUREHEREDITY BIOLOGY GENETICSENVIRONMENT SOCIETY CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTKNOWLEDGE GENERATIONSTABILITYVERSUSCHANGEREMAIN THE SAME AT LATER STAGECHANGES AT LATER STAGE
12THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT Continuity Vs. Discontinuity Continuous theory of development: development follows a smooth progression from infancy to adulthood, with a single quantitative dimensionDiscontinuous (stage) theory of development:development occurs in stages, each qualitatively different from the one before
13CONTINOUS AND DISCONTINOUS Figure 2.2 The course of development as described by continuity and discontinuity (stage) theorists.Source; (Huitt;2009)
14THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT Nature vs. Nurture Nature – inborn biological givens – the hereditary information children receive from their parents at the moment of concept that signals the body to grow and affects all their characteristics and skills.Nurture – the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence children’s biological make up and psychological experiences before and after birth.
15THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT Stability v. Change Stability – children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages.Change – children who are high or low in a characteristic can change at later ages, typically due to changes in the environment in either a positive or negative way.
17Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Was based on his therapy with troubled adults.He emphasized that a child's personality is formed by the ways which his parents managed his sexual and aggressive drives.
18Erik Erikson Psychosocial Personality develops in eight psychosocial stages through the life span.Social relationships and conscious thought are important.Nurture, but nature also importantStages build on each otherChild Active in development
19Jean Piaget Cognitive Developmental Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions.Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it.Described children's understanding as their "schemas” and how they use:assimilationaccommodation.
20Psychosocial Development Lev VygotskyPsychosocial DevelopmentAgreed that children are active learners, but their knowledge is socially constructed.Cultural values and customs dictate what is important to learn.Children learn from more expert members of the society.Vygotsky described the "zone of proximal development", where learning occurs.
21BF Skinner Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement (rewards) increase a desired behaviorNegative Reinforcement (punishment) decrease an undesired behaviorRewards and punishments shape behavior when given right after the behavior is demonstrated
22Bandura Social Learning Bandura believed that people learn behavior by observing and imitating others“Monkey see, Monkey do”Typical Social Learning Theory comment:“You can teach a dog new tricks if you show him how to do it, and reward him each time he does a good job.”
23Domains of Development Physical Development – changes in body size, proportions, appearances, and the functioning of various body systems – brain development, perceptual and motor capabilities, and physical health.Cognitive Development – development of a wide variety of thought processes and intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and the uniquely human capacity to represent the world through language.Emotional and Social Development – development of emotional communication, self-understanding, ability to manage one’s own feelings, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior.Moral Development – development of personal rules and conventions regarding one’s interactions with others
26Importance of childhood time Microsoft Engineering ExcellenceImportance of childhood timeChildhood, a crucial timeSelf-esteem developed in childhoodA child who feels good about themselves is more likely to be able to overcome problems later in life.Developmental tasks occur in succession.Microsoft Confidential
27Why study child development? Microsoft Engineering ExcellenceWhy study child development?Guidance for parents and other care-giversHelps society to support healthy growth.Helps identify and help children with special needsContributes to self-understandingUnderstanding the influences and experiences that shaped youMicrosoft Confidential
28Why study Child development? Microsoft Engineering ExcellenceWhy study Child development?It is possible for effective teaching to take place when the teacher understands how students think and how they view the world.Effective teaching strategies must take into account students’ ages and stages of development.Microsoft Confidential