PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTION INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD AGING
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTION: SPERM + EGG = ZYGOTE >> 2 WEEKS>> EMBRYO >> 9 WEEKS >> FETUS (born around 40 weeks) While in utero, the embryo can be harmed by various substances: smoke, alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), drugs, and disease (flu, STDs, etc.) Baby at 15 weeks:
BABY COLLAGE NAME DÉCOR CLOTHING (0-5 YEARS) TOY (0-5 YEARS)
INFANCY & CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT REFLEXES MATURATION MILESTONES COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT TEMPERAMENT
PHYSICAL & MENTAL DEVELOPMENT NEWBORN-CHILDHOOD Newborn reflexes: rooting, startle, pain avoidance, sucking Preferences: human voices, human faces, contrast, 8-12” range (distance from breast to face), mother’s smell & voice Maturation sets the course, experience adjusts it. Maturation: genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth Developing neural connections explain lack of memories prior to age 3. Motor development: all roll, sit, crawl, then walk (maturation not modeling) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT Schemas-concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Assimilate-interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. Accommodation-adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
PHYSICAL & MENTAL DEVELOPMENT TEMPERAMENT Stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self- regulation. Many researchers believe this to be the cornerstone of adult personality. Thomas & Chess, longitudinal study, initiated in 1956, found that temperament is not fixed and can be influenced by parenting. 3 types of children Easy- generally happy and adaptable Difficult-reacts negatively & intensely, not good with change Slow-to-warm-up-inactive, mildly reactive, negative in mood, adjusts slowly
ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTHOOD PHYSICAL CHANGES SOCIAL CHANGES SOCIAL CLOCK DECLINE: PHYSICAL & MENTAL
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT CHILDHOOD-PUBERTY Maturation and experience influences all stages of development (cognitive, social, physical, etc.) Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood and begins at puberty. It is getting to be a longer period of time due to: Nutrition and earlier physical development Extended education, mandatory secondary ed. & college becoming more accessible >> delaying careers and families Puberty begins around 11 for girls and 13 for boys, primary & secondary sex characteristics develop.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ADULTHOOD Post-puberty until death. Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, & cardiac output peak during the 20’s. As with other life stages, physiological changes can impact psychological states.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Significant physiological change for women is menopause around age 50. (Has not been found to be as psychologically dramatic.) More antibodies to fight off common ailments, but more susceptible to life-threatening disease On average, women live 4 yrs. longer than men; brains shrink slower as well. Estrogen may be related to a decrease in age-related mental decline and Alzheimer’s disease…caution, HRT (hormone replacement treatment) has been related to other cancers, though!
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD Disclaimer: Yes, Freud truly believed that all humans from infancy until death were driven by animalistic urges such as aggression and sex. Though it is difficult for us to imagine infants having these types of drives, Freud believed they existed. Keep in mind the context of his research, late 1800’s, “hysterical” women, and no psychological research to support or refute his claims.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD ORAL STAGE (Infancy-~18 months) Infant “pleasure seeking” is focused on the mouth. Sucking on a breast or bottle provides nourishment but also comfort and pleasure. Pacifiers do the same. Someone who becomes “fixated” in this stage may show such qualities as passive dependence or an exaggerated denial of dependence (fiercely independent), excessive smoking, eating, or gum chewing may satisfy infant deprivation.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD ANAL STAGE (~18 mo – 3 years): Infant pleasure seeking is focused on the process of elimination (going to the bathroom). Child is learning control over their body functions and the role this place is social development. Those who fixate in this stage may be overly controlling (anal retentive) or overly non-controlling (messy/disorganized).
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD PHALLIC STAGE (3-6 years): Pleasure zone shifts to the genitals. Freud’s focus was on a boy’s desire for his mother but also guilt and fear of the father possibly castrating him known as the Oedipus Complex. Though others later speculated the same for girls, the Electra Complex, Freud did not believe it existed. He believed that girls suffered from “penis envy.”
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD LATENCY PERIOD (~6-puberty): Sexual desires are suppressed; children begin to explore their world and learn new things, especially socially. (A lot happening cognitively as well!) Freud speculated that sexual impulses were being redirected into a more socially acceptable manner (sublimation) onto learning new things.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT-FREUD GENITAL STAGE (adolescence): Sexual desires are renew with the onset of puberty and the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. With greater cognitive development, individuals can understand others’ feelings, and giving and receiving of pleasure is rewarding. Freud believes that personality development ends here.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (BIRTH – 2 YEARS): experience the world through the senses (taste, touch, sound, sense of body) Will develop the concept of object permanence: out of sight out of mind > looking for a hidden object. Peek-a-boo! Will also develop stranger anxiety.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (~2-6 YEARS OLD): Preschool, very egocentric (self-centered), difficulty doing mental tasks Lacks the concept of Conservation http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=c95fcba76 d0fe0429563 http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=c95fcba76 d0fe0429563 Begins developing theory of mind, being able to see things from other’s perspectives. (Individuals with autism often struggle with this developmental stage.)
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCREATE OPERATIONAL STAGE (~7-11 YEARS): Problem solving becomes more mental, have grasped conservation, get jokes, understand mathematical transformations (+/- and x/÷ are opposite operations) http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=d26085ee3fa d631ebb37
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FORMAL OPERATIONAL (~12 TO ADULT): Reasoning becomes more abstract, imagine alternative realities, hypothetical thinking; Do you remember when you first GOT algebra? Research shows cognitive development unfolds basically the same for all, but researchers today feel it is more continuous than Piaget once thought.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT VYGOTSKY’S PERSPECTIVE A child’s cognitive development is shaped by social, cultural, and historical forces; humankind is improvable by building on the knowledge prior generations have gleaned from their experiences. Advances lead to higher intellectual functioning of later generations. Differed from Piaget in terms of “egocentric speech” in that he believed it was the child’s way of problem solving not just an expression of egocentrism. Zone of Proximal Development: The difference between the level of intellectual or academic tasks children can handle on their own and the level of problem they can manage with assistance from an adult.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ATTACHMENT http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=79ac9b2ae91a8b 47927b Harry Harlow’s research in the 1950’s showed us that feeding wasn’t the primary process for building attachment. Body contact is key…see “Harlow monkeys” on Youtube.com; baby monkeys would spend more time on the cloth monkey than on the wire/food monkey. This helps explain why strong attachments are formed between infants and people and objects that are not involved in feeding the child. Critical period exists after birth for attachments to be made and imprinting to occur…Lorenz. (More common in animals than humans.) “Fly Away Home” movie
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ATTACHMENT IN HUMANS (Ainsworth) “Strange situation” experiment where brief separation and reunion between child and caregiver occurs and the child’s response is measured. 4 patterns emerged: Secure attachment (may cry when separated, but that ends when reunited) Insecure attachment Avoidant attachment (unresponsive to separation and reunion) Resistant attachment (clingy prior to separation and respond in anger at reunion) Disorganized attachment (at reunion displayed confused/contradictory behaviors) Responsive parents often have securely attached children; secure vs. insecure may be a product of innate personality, though. Verdict is still out on “at home” child care vs. “day-care.” People have strong opinions about both, but no conclusive evidence support one over the other if the quality of care is equitable.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PARENTING (Baumrind is the primary researcher) STYLES: Authoritarian (rules & obedience) Permissive (submissive, child makes rules) Authoritative (democratic, provide choices) Uninvolved (neglectful, unresponsive) Authoritavite/democratic style is correlated with positive outcomes such as self-confidence, self-control, social and moral maturity, academic achievement, etc. Baumrind found children of permissive parents were often very immature with poor impulse control, and children with authoritarian parents, though well behaved & high achieving, were sometimes anxious and/or withdrawn. At its extreme, the uninvolved parent borders on maltreatment/neglect and may result in lack of interest, drug abuse, poor emotional self-regulation & school performance
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Trust vs Mistrust (infant) Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (toddler) Works to master physical environment while maintaining self-esteem 3. Initiative vs Guilt (preschooler) Begins to initiate, not imitate, activities; develops conscience and sexual identity
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 4. Industry vs Inferiority ( School-Age Child) Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills 5. Identity vs Role Confusion ( Adolescent) Tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image under role model and peer pressure 6. Intimacy vs Isolation (Young Adult ) Learns to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent or partner
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 7. Generativity vs Stagnation (Middle-Age Adult) Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests 8. Integrity vs Despair (Older Adult) Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and preparation for death www.thepsychfiles.com (A clever way of remembering Erikson’s 8 stages!)
MARCIA: ADOLESCENT IDENTITY CRISIS Identity diffusion: Not exploring, not deciding Have not given any serious thought to making important decisions & have not clear identity; identity is significantly influenced by others. Identity foreclosure: Not exploring, decisions made by others Have made a firm commitment about issues but is based on other’s opinions, not own.
MARCIA: ADOLESCENT IDENTITY CRISIS Identity moratorium: Exploring but not deciding Seriously considering issues but have not made a commitment on any matters facing him/her Identity achievement: Exploring issues and making decisions Has considered many possibilities and has committed himself/herself to important life matters
MORAL DEVELOPMENT KOHLBERG PRECONVENTIONAL (0-6 YEARS OLD) Obey to either avoid punishment or to receive rewards. Reward could be something tangible or doing something that feels good or right (altruistic). The reference group is ultimately the self.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT KOHLBERG CONVENTIONAL: (7-12 YEARS) With cognitive development comes the ability to take other’s perspective and to uphold laws and rules. Because of this fact, laws and rules shape this stage. Actions may be motivated by social approval or to maintain social order.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT KOHLBERG POSTCONVENTIONAL (13 YEARS +): This stage of moral development parallels formal operational cognitive development and abstract thinking. This stage allows someone to affirm agreed upon rights and ethical principles, even in the case that these principles go against the law. Some may never reach this stage. (This stage has not been found to be universal in all cultures or all genders (Gilligan), so it is controversial in its universality.)
METHODS OF RESEARCH To study developmental psychology, various methods can be used: Longitudinal studies: same population over a long period of time is ideal, but not always feasible Cross-sectional studies: samples taken from different populations of different age groups, more affordable and feasible, but many confounding variables (individual differences)