Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Movement Late 1800’s, Early 1900s."— Presentation transcript:
The Progressive Movement Late 1800’s, Early 1900s
What do you see here? What problems does this indicate that “progressives” want to improve? What do you think caused these problems?
A reform movement to cure the problems created by the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Unsanitary, crowded, corrupt CITIES Poor WORKING CONDITIONS Liquor Abuse A few wealthy industrialists (e.g. Rockefeller, Carnegie) with a high % of POOR POLITICAL CORRUPTION – “Machines” Who were they? EDUCATED, WHITE ANGLO-SAXON PROTESTANT REFORMERS (Mostly) - WASPs
4 goals: Help the POOR Promote MORALITY Improve the WORKPLACE (Efficiency, etc.) Improve GOVERNMENT (More Efficiency, etc.)
Goal # 1 of Progressives:Help the POOR Salvation Army: -soup kitchens, nurseries, “slum brigades” – MORAL COMPONENT TOO Jane Addams’ – Hull House in Chicago (1889) – Childcare, help for women & Immigrants, reformers met there What do you think she was saying to these women?
Goal # 1: Help the POOR (cont.) Idea of an income tax was proposed… GOAL: distribute income more evenly (and embarrass Republicans) – “Soak the Rich” RESULT: 16 TH Amendment: 1 st Income tax (1913 – Taft/Wilson) “Progressive” Tax – Higher Income = Higher tax Issue Today? Bush Tax Cuts
Goal #2 of the progressives: Promote MORALITY best way to help people… - Teach them to be more MORAL Best way to do that… No More Drinking!!!!! W.C.T.U.: Women’s Christian Temperance Union – Largest Women’s Group in History Pushed for Ban on drinking women’s right to vote
Morality…Continued RESULTS: 18 th Amendment (1920) – Ban on Drinking 19 th Amendment (1920) – Women can vote… – Alice Paul & WCTU Morality for men in the “outside world” but also… &
What do you see here? Why does this look dangerous? Why do you think children were valued as workers based on this?
“I want to learn to read but I can’t if I’m working all the time…”
Goal #3 of the progressives:Make the WORKPLACE better Child Labor – BIG PROBLEM Child Labor was limited (by 1912 – ¾ of all states banned it)
What do you see here? What do you think happened?
Also…women’s labor was Dangerous (Triangle Factory- 146), Underpaid(1/2) Progressive movement attempted to make improvements for women at work AND: Better Education (Radcliffe, Smith, Wellesley)! THE right to vote! NAWSA – Carrie Chapman Catt– tried state legislatures, courts and then … - Got RADICAL – ALICE PAUL – Hunger Strikes, Round the clock pickets of Whitehouse - AMENDMENT TO CONSTITUTION (19 TH ) – 1920 – WOMEN COULD NOW VOTE
Goal #3 Make the WORKPLACE/Business better ( MUCKRAKERS: Investigative reporters who criticize big business – Do we have these today? 60 Minutes…RESULT Upton Sinclair: “The Jungle” – horrors of meatpacking industry Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food & Drug Act (FDA created) T. Roosevelt took action
John D. Rockefeller Developed a huge monopoly and trusts in the Oil industry – Standard Oil through SKETCHY practices
Muckrakers to the RESCUE (insert superman music)… Ida Tarbell: Reported on the abuses of capitalism and Big Business – particularly Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (Trusts/Monopoly) What the heck are trusts & monopolies and all this stuff all about? (see next slide…) What is a capitalism? Why is it sketchy?
What do you see in this slide?
Goal #3 of the progressives:Make the WORKPLACE/Businesses better (Cont.) Vs. Govt. Vs. Business
Trustbusters (Govt.) vs. Industrialists (Business ) Trust: Secret agreements between companies – knock out competition…- creates a… Monopoly - 1 company controls industry then jack up prices (Rockefeller & Carnegie) Trustbusters – Teddy Roosevelt used Sherman act to bust up Trusts & monopolies - and offer “SQUARE DEAL” for common folk Also a Trustbuster….TAFT Broke twice as many trusts as Roosevelt Instituted 8 hour workday
Why were they going at it? Same reason why Congress went after Bill Gates recently… Monopoly = less competition = bad for consumer Industrialist argument: Laissez Faire Gov’t (“Hands Off” business = Good for business growth Problem with this…?
Goal #3 of the progressives:Make the WORKPLACE/Businesses better (Cont.) What the heck is all this laissez-faire, capitalism stuff?
Eugene Debs, Socialists and Unions say …
Eugene, Socialists, and Unions would say… Businesses Can’t be trusted Eugene Debs: 1 st Socialist Candidate for prez What is a socialist? (see handout) Trade Unions:Groups of Unified workers that can obtain more worker rights than businesses – Knights of Labor – “brotherhood” – pooled unions together but….
– Unions Labeled as radical and didn’t work out because of HAYMARKET Bombing …also…
…The Pullman Strike (1894): Gov’t against Unions
Samuel Gompers and AFL (Amer. Fed. Of Labor) – success of bigger/industry wide unions & NOT AS RADICAL
Eventually, won support in government through… Teddy Roosevelt & John L. Lewis (Union Organizer)
Goal #3 of the progressives:Make the WORKPLACE better (cont.) More EFFICIENT WORKPLACE : Scientific Management (Taylor):Apply science to business FORD – pay twice the amount for boring wk
San Fran Earthquake of 1906 How well do you think the government respond to these disasters (think Katrina)?
Fightin’ Bob Lafollette
Goal # 4 of Progressives:Make GOVERNMENT better Robert La Follette – “Fighting Bob” – DROVE BUSINESS OUT OF POLITICS (RAILROAD) Direct Primaries !!!!!!(Wisconsin Idea) – The people could elect political candidates …not corrupt POLITICAL MACHINES And more efficiency in… People should have more of a say in Gov’t!!!
Goal # 4 of Progressives:Make GOVERNMENT better (Cont.)
Result on State Level: Recalls (Ahhhnold!) Initiatives (Petitions) Referendums ( Vote No/Yes on #1 ) Secret Ballots (Australian Ballot)
17 th Amendment – Senators are elected by the people rather by the (often corrupt) state governments (Yeah “Fightin’” Bob!) (Are we fighting this stuff today? You betcha… McCain-Feingold Bill/DeLay) Also, Anti-political machine legislations (NO KICKBACKS, NEPOTISM, CRONYISM, ETC.) National Result:
Teddy’s other big progressive action: CONSERVATION LAND -Yosemite, etc(.…not a hippie but…loved to camp!) Appointed Experts (Pinchot/Muir): Way to make gov’t better and more EFFICIENT Taft went against this Led to…
…Republican Party split…Dems Win
Woody Wilson’s Progressivism
Woody Wilson’s Progressivism – “New Freedom” CLAYTON ANTI-TRUST ACT (Wilson ALSO a trustbuster) FTC – “watchdog of business” Federal Reserve Bank – 12 of them! 16 th Amend.- Income Tax
Review: Help the POOR (Income tax, Salvation army, Hull House, etc) Promote MORALITY (No Drinking/More Christianity) Improve the WORKPLACE/Business (Efficiency, Improve for women & Children, Teddy) Improve GOVERNMENT (More Efficiency, Less Corruption, People have more of a say)
Was their progress during the progressive movement? Did the progressive movement embody a shift from personal responsibility and morality to government taking responsibility for peoples’ actions?