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Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1 Chapter 12 Leadership with Duane Weaver

2 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 2 Exhibit 12.1 Distinguishing Managership from Leadership

3 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 3 The Place of Leadership Can Anyone Be a Leader? –Some people don’t have what it takes to be a leader –Some people are more motivated to lead than others Is Leadership Always Necessary? –Some people don’t need leaders –Leaders need to be aware of followers’ needs

4 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 4 Early Leadership Theories Trait Theories (1920s–30s) –Research that focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful –Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: 1.Drive 2.desire to lead 3.honesty and integrity 4.self-confidence 5.Intelligence 6.job-relevant knowledge 7.extraversion

5 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 5 Behavioural Theories University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) –Identified three leadership styles: Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback Laissez-faire style: hands-off management –Research findings: mixed results No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader

6 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 6 Behavioural Theories (cont’d) Ohio State Studies –Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings University of Michigan Studies –Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment

7 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 7 Behavioural Theories (cont’d) Managerial Grid –Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: Concern for people Concern for production

8 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 8 Concern for People vs. Concern for Production Exhibit 12.4 The Managerial Grid Concern for People vs. Concern for Production Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development” by Robert R. Blake, Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes, and Larry E. Greiner, November– December 1964, p Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

9 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 9 Contingency Theories of Leadership The Fiedler Model –Effective group performance depends upon the match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence –Assumptions: Different situations require different leadership styles Leaders do not readily change leadership styles –Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favourable to the leader is required

10 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 10 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) –Successful leadership is achieved by selecting a leadership style that matches the level of the followers’ readiness Acceptance: do followers accept or reject a leader? Readiness: do followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task? –Leaders must give up control as followers become more competent

11 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 11 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) –Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: Telling:Telling: high task–low relationship leadership Selling:Selling: high task–high relationship leadership Participating:Participating: low task–high relationship leadership Delegating:Delegating: low task–low relationship leadership

12 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 12 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) –Identifies four stages of follower readiness: R1: followers are unable and unwilling R2: followers are unable but willing R3: followers are able but unwilling R4: followers are able and willing

13 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 13 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) –Leader behaviour must be adjusted to reflect the task structure –Suggests appropriate participation level in decision making

14 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 14 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Leader Participation Model Contingencies: –Decision significance –Importance of commitment –Leader expertise –Likelihood of commitment –Group support –Group expertise –Team competence

15 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 15 Leadership Styles: Vroom Leader Participation Model Decide Consult Individually Consult Group Facilitate Delegate

16 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 16 Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Path-Goal Model –Leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in achieving organizational goals –Leader’s style depends on the situation: Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented

17 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 17 Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional, Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary Transactional Leadership –Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational Leadership –Leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization –Leaders who have a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers

18 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 18 Charismatic Leadership –An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways –Characteristics of charismatic leaders: Have a vision Are able to articulate the vision Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision Are sensitive to the environment and to follower needs Exhibit behaviours that are out of the ordinary Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional, Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary

19 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 19 Charismatic Leadership (cont’d) –Effects of Charismatic Leadership Increased motivation, greater satisfaction More profitable companies Charismatic leadership may have a downside: –After recent ethics scandals, some agreement that CEOs with less vision, and more ethical and corporate responsibility, might be more desirable Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional, Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary

20 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 20 Visionary Leadership –A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation –Visionary leaders have the ability to: Explain the vision to others Express the vision not just verbally but through behaviour Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional, Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary

21 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 21 Exhibit Specific Roles of Team Leadership Team Leader Roles Liaison with External Constituencies Coach Conflict Manager Troubleshooter

22 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 22 Current Leadership Issues Managing Power –Legitimate power The power a leader has as a result of his or her position –Coercive power The power a leader has to punish or control –Reward power The power to give positive benefits or rewards –Expert power The influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge –Referent power The power of a leader that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits

23 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 23 Developing Trust Credibility (of a Leader) –The assessment, by a leader’s followers, of the leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire Trust –The belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness –Trust is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviours, job satisfaction, and organization commitment

24 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 24 Tips for Managers: Suggestions for Building Trust Practise openness Be fair Speak your feelings Tell the truth Show consistency Fulfill your promises Maintain confidences Demonstrate competence

25 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 25 Providing Moral Leadership Addressess both the moral content of a leader’s goals and the means used to achieve those goals Ethical leadership is more than being ethical –Includes reinforcing ethics through organizational mechanisms

26 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 26 Empowering Employees Empowerment –Involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers –Why empower employees? Quicker responses to problems and faster decisions Relieves managers to work on other problems

27 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 27 Empowerment: Cautions The following conditions should be met for empowerment to be introduced: –Clear definition of company’s values and mission –Employees have relevant skills –Employees need to be supported, not criticized, when performing –Employees need to be recognized for their efforts

28 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 28 Exhibit Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. Malaysian leaders are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation

29 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 29 Cross-Cultural Leadership Universal Elements of Effective Leadership –V–Vision –F–Foresight –P–Providing encouragement –T–Trustworthiness –D–Dynamism –P–Positiveness –P–Proactiveness

30 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 30 Gender Differences and Leadership Research Findings –Males and females use different styles: Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job Women tend to use transformational leadership Men tend to use transactional leadership

31 Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 31 Exhibit Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November , p. 75. Noneof the five studies set out to find gender differences. They stumbled on them while compiling and analyzing performance evaluations. Skill(Each check mark denotes which group scored higher on the respective studies) * In one study, women’s and men’s scores in these categories were statistically even. MENWOMEN Motivating Others Fostering Communication Producing High-Quality Work Strategic Planning Listening to Others Analyzing Issues * * * Data: Hagberg Consulting Group, Management Research Group, Lawrence A. Pfaff, Personnel Decisions International Inc., Advanced Teamware Inc.

32 Thanks! Chapter 12, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Eighth Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 32


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