Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Nonverbal BC and Intercultural BC. 2. Paralanguage in BC Contents 6. Tips on intercultural BC 5. Categorization of cultures 4. Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 2 Nonverbal BC and Intercultural BC
2. Paralanguage in BC Contents 6. Tips on intercultural BC 5. Categorization of cultures 4. Environmental language in BC 3. Body language in BC 1. Verbal communication and nonverbal communication
1. Verbal and nonverbal communication 1.1 Verbal communication -- conveys meaning with words, either in oral or in written form richer: express all kinds of ideas easier: keep and transmit information more clarified: less possible interpretations more efficient: especially when people are separated Then, why nonverbal?
It is not what you say, but the way you say it. It was written all over your face. You are what you wear! Smiling is contagious. Why nonverbal?
The way your message is conveyed:
1.2 Nonverbal communication -- conveys meaning without words, but through one’s voice qualities, facial expressions, gestures, body movements, or attitudes towards space and time more reliable: natural and unconscious, without our consent, “Don’t lie to me!”lie to me sometimes more economical Nonverbal signals are not separated, but are inseparably linked to speech. There is no dictionaries to provide commonly agreed meanings of nonverbal symbols. The interpretation of nonverbal codes is culture- sensitive.
Para- language 副语言 also called voice qualities, has to do with the sound of a speaker’s voice; the closest to verbal communication; blends with speech to carry part of the message Title Guild Design is one of aligned company with Microsoft Ltd, and we develop and provide the design templates for Office 97, 2000, and XP. Title Environ- mental language 环境语言 Categories of nonverbal symbols Body language 身体语言 physical movement of a communicator’s body involves factors around the communicator, including time, space, seating, color, light, architecture, office arrangement, decorations and furnishings, etc.
2. Paralanguage in BC -- has to do with the sound of a speaker’s voice; the closest to verbal communication 2.1 Volume 音量 medium/low voice: mature and confident very soft voice: young and inexperienced very loud voice: angry, excited, or sentimental practice increasing your volume without shouting fail to exercise a good control over one’s volume = lack proper training in business communication
2.2 Rate 语速 normal speed: words/min speak in a hurried or very fast way = be arrogant (exception: Northeasterners) slow down when making presentations pause for a few seconds after raising a serious question
2.3 Pitch 音高 high-pitched voice: make others nervous, sounds like scolding low-pitched voice: authoritative, sexier and more pleasant if inevitable to use a high-pitched voice (e.g. calm down a noisy crowd or an excited group), quickly recover your normal pitch handle the raise and fall to create dramatic effect
2.4 Emphasis 强调 Communication practice: Read the following series of statement, emphasize different underscored words to feel how stress can change meaning. I will give you a raise.
To check the appropriateness of your paralanguage: 1.Ask a close friend: Do you like the way I speak to you? 2.Have your voice recorded and then listen to it
2. Body language in BC 2.1 Facial expression 面部表情 Your face is the primary site for expressing your emotions. Facial muscles can form up more than 7,000 different expressions. Koreans: traditionally regard a person with a serious face as more dependable, but now practice business smiling to meet the challenge of global business What facial expression do you have when you are in: anger contempt disgust fear happiness sadness surprise
Can you interpret these expressions?
2.2 Eye contact 眼神接触 -- the “listener/speaker connection”: the audience feels connected with you and you feel connected with them and can read their reactions Westerners: look people in the eye to show honesty and frankness (“He wouldn’t look me in the eye!”); use eyebrow movements more frequently low-look culture (e.g. the UK): watching other people (esp. strangers) regarded as intrusive high-look culture (e.g. Spain, Italy, Greece): long gaze perfectly acceptable or encouraged Japanese/Vietnamese: look down to show respect (doesn’t mean to be “shifty”) Muslims: after the first eye contact, lower their gaze and try not to focus on the opposite sex’s (young or adult, other than their legitimate partners or family members) faces and eyes to avoid unwanted desires Chinese?
2.3 Gesture 身体动作 -- physical movements of arms, legs, hands and head present and receive business cards with both hands move with a purpose: e.g. walk to the other side of the room every five minutes or after you’ve completed a main section, step forward to emphasize a point in a presentation avoid random, constant, repetitive or purposeless motion some universal gestures:
Cultural difference in gesture: Sri Lanka, Nepal and India: shake heads to express agreement, nod heads to show disapproval Case study: Handshake with the Arab officer Arab: never shake hands with a left hand (used for washing one’s lower part of the body) some culture-specific gestures:
“OK” for many countries anus for the Brazilians sexual invitation for Greeks yen for the Japanese
2.4 Posture 身体姿势 -- body position as a whole, a more or less stable state (vs. gesture as a movement), e.g. seating, standing, lying down, crossed legs, folded arms Communication practice: Read your mind through your posture Your classmates all have different postures. Can you interpret them and tell his/her state of mind?
stand in an comfortably upright position: energetic facing your audience: confident and respectful leaning: nervous or tired swaying or bouncing: nervous or naïve sit with a hand supporting your chin: either deep in thinking or in the blues lean forward while listening: attentive and interested look away from time to time while listening: absent- minded or lacking interest Always mind your posture or your image as a business person might be damaged. Interpretation of postures:
Professional posture when stand:
Professional posture when sit:
2.5 Appearance 个人外形 -- clothing, hair style, cosmetics, accessories, etc. What is appropriate in the fashion industry may be totally inappropriate in the banking industry. dress appropriately for the audience, the occasion, the organization, and the culture avoid clothes that will distract from what you are saying, e.g. plaits, patterns, print keep your accessories decent and simple (don’t wear a loud, flashy tie)
4. Environmental language in BC 4.1 Time 时间 Do you make other people wait or always arrive early than scheduled, or, are you always on time? Do you make an appointment before seeing any workmate? Do you prioritize telephone calls? How long do you excuse yourself from a face-to-face conversation to respond to an interrupting call? How long would you spend on a business lunch with your client?
4.2 Space 距离 -- the physical distance between two communicators Latin Americans: prefer a closer space Scandinavians: prefer a more distant space efforts to create distance: large desks in some offices (as a buffer zone to keep the visitors at a distance from the owner), a table between interviewers and the interviewee efforts to shorten distance: the manager comes from behind his desk and sit with his subordinate on the same sofa to talk; the CEO occasionally have lunch with their bottom-line employees or join their wedding parties
4 types of personal space: within 50 cm: intimate distance, for exchange of within 50 cm: intimate distance, for exchange of important information and physical contacts 50 cm – 1.2 m: personal distance, for casual conversations with friends for acquaintances 1.2 m – 3.7 m: social distance, for an interview, a business talk, etc., not fit for sharing anything personal 3.7 m – the limit of our sight: public distance, for public speeches and meeting strangers
Case study: The American and the Arabic space Read the American and the Arabic space case on Page 26-27, and think it over: what lead to their communication failure? The decrease in personal space would make the other party feel that he/she is distanced and rejected.
4.3 Seating 座位安排 -- the way you arrange the chairs for a group communication (meeting or presentation) At a meeting: strait lines of chairs: the least interactive u-shaped lines: encourage more interaction In a presentation: stand on a stage or platform that is higher than you audience: formal stand while the audience sits: semiformal sit together with your audience around a table (at the some level): informal In China’s formal banquet: the most powerful person has the seat around the table just opposite to the door
5. Categorization of cultures CULTURE: -- a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, norms and social practices We can never be too culture-conscious in business communication. Few of us are experts in all the cultures in the world; either is it possible to know all cultures in the world. What we should do is to enhance our cultural sensitivity.
5.1 High- vs. low-context culture -- proposed by American anthropologist and cross-cultural researcher Edward Hall (1959, Beyond Culture, New York: Doubleday) high-context culture: context-dependent, relies on implicit, nonverbal messages; also called “relational culture”; e.g. most Middle Eastern and Asian cultures low-context culture: information-dependent, relies on explicit, verbal messages; also called “individualistic culture”; e.g. mainstream culture in the US and Canada
Countries in high-/low-context culture:
Remarks from communicators: “As an American project manager, I was expecting that if I was proposing something stupid, I would hear it from the people on the team. In reality, I had a plan with a fatal flaw, and the Japanese team members knew it, but it was not their style of communication to embarrass me by telling me.”
Remarks from communicators: “Before our Manila factory was set up, we sent 20-odd people there for a one-year training program, and I was one of them. For all of us, the startup of the factory was our priority. Consequently, we all focused on what we had to do, and had little one-to-one coach from the Filipinos. We neglected that fact that Philippines is a highly people-motivated country. But later on we found that we should set up a good relationship between each other and our change proved to be efficient. When we became friends, things went on much easier. In some cases, we could even get them to coach us during off-duty hours to at their homes.”
Guidelines for doing business in a high- context culture: understand that contextual information will be important be aware of the implied messages that you sent and that others send to you develop relationships before focusing on tasks expect decision-making to be collaborative and collective understand that the employee-employer relationship is humanistic expect a reliance on trust or intuition use indirect style in writing and speaking expect circular reasoning accept that contracts may change
Guidelines for doing business in a low- context culture: remember that contextual information may be less important expect a reliance on explicit and direct verbal communication accept that tasks are viewed as separate from relationships expect individual initiative in decision-making understand that the employee-employer relationship is mechanistic support assertions with facts and statistical evidence use indirect style in writing and speaking expect linear reasoning expect contracts to be firm
Case study: The American-Chinese conversation Read the American-Chinese conversation case on Page 28. What cultural factors led to the communication failure? If you were the Chinese in the similar situation, what would you say?
5.2 The cultural dimensions theory -- proposed by Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist Geert Hofstede (1993, "Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind". Administrative Science Quarterly, 38 (1): 132–134) individualistic (put their own interests and those of their immediate family ahead to social concerns) vs. collectivistic: (believe that the welfare of the group they belong to is as important as their own) power distance: high (recognize power difference, have a great deal of respect for those in high positions) vs. low (power difference not emphasized, more comfortable approaching or even challenging their superiors)
uncertainty avoidance: high (uncomfortable with change and risk) vs. low (comfortable with change and risk) task orientation (“masculine”, focus heavily on getting the job done) vs. social orientation: (“feminine”, focus more on collective concern, e.g. the feelings of members, cooperative problem solving) short-term orientation (look for quick payoffs) vs. long- term orientation (pursue long-range goals) (countries ranked in the five dimensions: see “Cultural Values in Selected Counties and Regions” on Page 28)
6. Tips on intercultural BC 6.1 Cultural differences in international business (1) Addressing and greeting The US: on a first-name basis (friendly, indicating fondness and attachment), except Doctor Germany: use formal titles to show respect until others invite you to be more casual China: “General Manager”, “Director”, a deputy position addressed as a “full” Egypt: discourteous to use first names or ignore titles
the Middle East: nodding as greeting Japan: bow as greeting (the low it is, the more respectful) Thai: “wai” as greeting (pressed palms together with a head bow) India: invite you to visit his/her home at any time at any place Japan: give and receive business cards with two hands, study the card carefully, and nod to indicate that you have understood it
(2) Reception and gift-giving the US: go Dutch China: treat business partners with eight or ten courses, “Chinese hospitality”; “What a banquet!”, and then ”What a waste!” China and Japan: exchange of gifts at first formal encounters Western Europe: gifts are not exchanged initially China and Japan: avoid gifts in sets of fours China: avoid gifts of clocks India: avoid gifts of leather (cows are sacred) Arab: no gift for a businessman’s wife Latin America and Europe: gifts for the family or children is appreciated (esp. when visiting a home)
(3) Attitude towards time monochronic orientation: time is money; appointments are scheduled in datebooks and rigidly adhered to; task are performed in a scheduled order, one at a time; e.g. North America, northern Europe polychronic orientation: time as taking a backseat to personal relationships; people are less concerned about living by the clock; meetings go on for as long as they take; e.g. Latin America, southern Europe, Middle East
(4) Attitude towards other’s open praise the US: try every means to show yourself, feel greatly encouraged if praised in front of others China: be modest, say that what he/she had done was nothing and not worth mentioning when praised, relate one’s achievements to the organization and the superior Japan: an individual should never be singled out from his/her group for praise, feel embarrassed when praised openly; “I can’t believe how rude some Japanese workers are. They seem to be disturbed by praise and don’t answer you… just silent ”
(5) Avoidance of conflict China, Japan and Korea: maintenance and pursuit of harmony (“ 和 ”, “wa”, and ”kibun”); not say “no” directly, fear of losing face and suffering embarrassment; spare you unpleasant news or information the Middle East and southern Europe: harmony takes a backseat to emotional expression the US: argue fiercely, hit the table, and then leave the meeting room as if nothing happened Mexico: value harmony and discourage confrontation, might not forgive for three months after a quarrel
6.2 General guidelines be open-minded: view diversity as an opportunity be flexible: ready to change your way or attitude when required learn about different cultures avoid stereotypical representation of a culture; you are communicate with an individual avoid excessive efforts to demonstrate an attitude of equality: “I never even notice that you’re black.”, “You’re different from most black people.”, “I understand what you’re going through as a black women because I’m (Jewish, Italian, Latino, etc.)”
Online resources for learning about world cultures: Brief profiles of key information for travelers visiting over 100 countries and regions, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. Each pamphlet begins with a simple map and background on geography, history, climate, and other basic information. Communication-related information include personal appearance, gestures, greetings, visiting, eating, and many other topics. Global Business Basics: Executive Planet: International Business Consortium: United Nations:
1. Communication practice With your partner, work out hints and tips on how to communicate effectively in the nonverbal way when you are attending a: presentation: as the speaker and as a listener negotiation meeting interview … and act out some of them.
2. Case study: The Dubai delegation Read the Company H case on Page You are now assigned to take Mr. L ’ s place as the chief representative to expand the Middle East market, which has been listed as the strategic focus of the company in the coming three years. What actions would you take?