Presentation on theme: "1 Challenges and Opportunities for Harnessing the Demographic Dividend in Africa Eliya Msiyaphazi Zulu (PhD.) Presented at the ICPD Beyond 2014 Africa."— Presentation transcript:
1 Challenges and Opportunities for Harnessing the Demographic Dividend in Africa Eliya Msiyaphazi Zulu (PhD.) Presented at the ICPD Beyond 2014 Africa Regional Conference Experts Meeting Addis Ababa, 30 September 2013 – October 2, 2013
Defining the Demographic Dividend The Demographic Dividend is the economic benefit arising from a significant increase in the ratio of working-aged adults relative to young dependents. When birth rates decline significantly, the age structure shifts in favor of more working-aged adults, which can help accelerate economic growth through increased productivity, greater household savings, and lower costs for basic social services provided to children.
Asian Tigers: Success Story Between ¼ to 1/3 of economic growth since 1970 in East and South East Asia can be attributed to the Demographic Dividend” (Bloom and Williamson, 1998; Mason, 2001) The economic success was made possible by sustained investments in education, health, family planning, and economic reforms 3
Kenya and Thailand’s age structure differ remarkably due to differences in birth rates 4 Source: UN Population Division (MEDIUM VARIANT), 2011 TFR: 7.5 TFR: 6.1 TFR: 4.6 TFR: 1.6 TFR: 2.7 TFR: 1.7
Ratio of working age to dependent population Sub- Saharan Africa Source: UN Population Division (MEDIUM VARIANT), 2011
Ratio of working age to dependent population Sub- Saharan Africa
Defining the Demographic Dividend The Demographic Dividend is the economic benefit arising from a significant increase in the ratio of working-aged adults relative to young dependents. When birth rates decline significantly, the age structure shifts in favor of more working- aged adults, accelerating economic growth through increased productivity, greater household savings, and lower costs for basic social services provided to a young population.
Asian Tigers: Success Story Between ¼ to 1/3 of economic growth since 1970 in East and South East Asia can be attributed to the Demographic Dividend” (Bloom and Williamson, 1998; Mason, 2001) The economic success was made possible by sustained investments in education, health, family planning, and economic reforms 8
SOURCE: Mason, 2012 Higher human capital spending is associated with lower fertility
Consumption and Labor Income by Age, Nigeria 2004 Labor income (500 trillion Naira)Consumption (500 trillion Naira) Source: National Transfer Accounts estimates (www.ntaccounts.org) - Mason 2012www.ntaccounts.org Economic needs of children are enormous: about 80% of total labor income. Labor surplus is less than 20%. Shortfall is met by relying on: Natural resources Remittances Other asset income. Little remains for saving and investment. 10
Labor income (3000 trillion won)Consumption (3000 trillion won) Consumption and Labor Income by Age, S Korea 2000 Source: National Transfer Accounts estimates (www.ntaccounts.org) - - Mason 2012www.ntaccounts.org Child deficit is very small in S Korea: about 35% of labor income. Working age surplus is about 30% of total labor income. S Korea is investing asset income. 11
Speeding the Demographic Transition Reinforce progress in reducing child mortality Enhance education, particularly female school enrollment and general female empowerment Expand access to effective family planning to reduce unplanned pregnancies and births 12
There is urgent need to address relatively early entry into marriage in West, Middle, and East Africa % of women aged who got married by age 15 and 18
Governments and development partners must pledge universal secondary education, especially in West, Central and East Africa % of secondary school age boys and girls who are enrolled in school
Addressing barriers to contraceptive use would reduce unmet need and fertility substantially % of Married women using modern FP and those with unmet need for FP Source: DHS Analytical Series (Forthcoming)
Due to differences in rates of decline in birth rates, age structures in Africa vary widely 16
Africa’s labour force surplus will peak later & at a lower level if fertility continues to decline slowly 17 Tunisia Source: UN Population Division (Medium Variant)
Earning the Demographic Dividend Macro-economic policies – the demand side Public health Education Youth and Female Employment Unemployment and underemployment Export orientation for labor demand Channeling savings into investment Address huge inequities in quality of human capital and economic opportunities between the rich and the poor 18
Women in many African countries are already involved in informal economic activities. In order to seize the DD, there should be a shift to the formal sector 19
Africa’s economic growth and natural resources critical for development Economies expected to continue growing at a steady rate, despite global recession – In 2014, Sub-Saharan Africa economies to grow by 6.1% (global average of 4%) – IMF, April 2013 – Foreign Direct investment projected to increase from $37 in 2012 to $54 billion in 2015 – Infrastructure development is improving across the continent, especially in East and Southern Africa – "It is expected that by 2020, only four or five countries in the region will not be involved in mineral exploitation of some kind” (World Bank) – Diaspora remittances playing a key role in development
But Africa’s economic “boom” is not reducing poverty & creating enough jobs High levels of underemployment and reliance on the informal sector, especially among women and youth Heavy reliance on mining and mineral resources, which are often mismanaged and are not labour intensive Agricultural sector, which provides livelihood to most people, is still largely underdeveloped and vulnerable to climate change Rapid but poorly managed urbanization not effectively used as an engine for socioeconomic development "Better governance will need to underpin efforts to make growth more poverty reducing," (World Bank)
Can Africa harness the DD? Yes … but much more needs to be done… 1.Make a conscious decision that the status quo is not acceptable and not sustainable – and mobilize the people to act. 2.Ensure universal access to family planning & other SRH and general public health services and general empowerment of women, which will facilitate voluntary fertility decline and enhance women’s participation in economic activities 3.Ensure universal access to quality and labour-market oriented education focused on developing innovation and economic skills, with particular focus on secondary and higher levels and closing all gender and related inequities.
Africa can harness the DD? Yes … but much more needs to be done… 4Optimize the role of urbanization in development and enhance rural development and modernization of agriculture 5Adopt economic policies and reforms that help develop industries of comparative advantage to ensure creation of secure jobs and livelihoods, which will enhance savings and investments 6Improve governance and accountable use of pubic resources, including laws that prevent exploitative use of Africa’s natural resources by foreign investors and local companies
Africa can harness the DD? Yes … but much more needs to be done… 7.Adopt inclusive and people centered development - the most important resource for development is human capital and not minerals or size of armies – invest in people! 8.Enhance local technical capacity in research, documentation and operationalization of Africa’s promising and success stories to inform scale-up and closure of the policy- implementation gaps
We should embrace positive change ongoing in Africa and learn from one-another 25 % of married women using modern Family planning
The DD and ICPD beyond 2014 Its not the silver bullet solution to Africa’s development challenges – it’s a bonus for doing what governments should to develop their countries and people, when you start from a high fertility state Is talking about population and the DD incompatible with the ICPD PoA? – NO – as long as governments and all stakeholders preserve the right of couples to decide freely and without coercion when they want to have children and how many children to have, and support those who want to have fewer children do so. – DD reinforces ICPD PoA and MDGs - integrated development that focuses on developing quality human capital, job creation and economic security, empowering women and preserving sexual and reproductive health and rights.